Melissa - one of the most famous of aromatic and medicinal plants.It is also called Melissa lemon, mint bee, Honey Apple, the liquor roevnikom, apiary, honey color.Acquaintance with antiquity.It is, for example, grown by the Romans in perfumery and medicine.
This plant feels great in our flower beds and vegetable gardens next to the parsley and dill.Meanwhile, she did not come from the north and from the central part of Russia.This is the southern visitor, her true home - the Eastern Mediterranean, the Balkans, Iran.In the wild form is found in the Caucasus, Crimea, Central Asia, in the south of the European part of Russia.In any region it is mastered very quickly and often begins to run wild.He loves forest edges, moist shady ravines, settled even in weedy places.Today, widespread and as a cultural and a wild plant throughout Europe and North America.
This hardy plant with a pleasant lemon scent was spread out in the gardens where spices were grown.Melissa likes to open li
Melissa officinalis - a perennial herb.. It can reach a height of 0.5-1 m branching rhizome;stem erect, four-sided, highly branched, slightly pubescent tip.The lower side shoots creeping.Lemon balm leaves are opposite, petiolate, elongated in the length of 3-5 cm, are rounded, larger - egg.Have a rough streaks at the edges notch.The upper surface of the leaves, as well as the stem is covered by thin fibers, the lower - slightly pubescent.The flowers are small, white, yellow or pink, are located in the axils of upper leaves.Flowering time Melissa - from late June until the end of August, in the southern regions - to November.Flowering plants are always surrounded by a cloud of bees.No wonder the generic name of the plant comes from the Greek "melissa" - a bee, and the Latin name translates as "bee star."Fruit - four light-brown nuts, fruits of lemon balm small and hard.
forms and pubescent leaves of lemon balm like the dead nettle.But to distinguish it from other plants will have no difficulty.Melissa accurately can be found on a specific flavor.All shrub and especially smell lemon leaves (hence the name "Lemon mint").Especially pleasing its smell before flowering, then it becomes thicker and heavier.A special smell of lemon balm is obliged to a high concentration of essential oils - it is a characteristic feature of all of the family Labiatae.Other members of the botanical family, such as peppermint, rosemary, sage, lavender, thyme, too, have a strong flavor, which is difficult to confuse with any other.
The people often give Melissa other names that point to its therapeutic effect: heart grass, "heart comfort" - because of its calming effect;female grass, as it was applied in case of violation of menstruation, pregnancy complaints and hysterical during seizures.
height of this multi-year honey plants varies from 30 to 80 cm Homeland Melissa -. Mediterranean, from Italy to Syria and Iran, in Europe it is as a spice and medicinal plant came through the Arabs, Greeks and Romans.At first it was grown in monastery gardens, today it is cultivated in gardens, it can be grown on balconies.Melissa has many local names, the most common of which are lemon balm, lemon mint, Honey Apple, liquor, apiary.These names reflect some of the most well-known properties of the plant - lemon flavor, which have leaves, buds and young stems, honey and high culture.Beekeepers Melissa rubbed hives to attract bees.
Description: branching stem densely covered with petiolate, opposite, ovate leaves krupnopilchatymi.Pale blue or pale-yellow flowers grow from the axils of leaves polumutovkami.Flowers in July and August.Fruits - nuts.
is widespread in the Caucasus, in southern areas of the European part of Russia and Central Asia.It grows among bushes, shrubs and forest edges.
Medical raw material is a herb - the leaves and shoot tips collected at the beginning of flowering.The smell of fresh raw lemon.Dried in the shade or in the air dryer.
In the grass found Melissa essential oil containing citral, citronellal, geraniol and myrcene, ascorbic acid, caffeic, and ureolovaya oleanolic acid, tannins.The seeds contain fatty oil plants.
essential oil of lemon balm has low tox- icity and has a sedative effect.There is evidence of a beneficial effect of drugs balm on heart patients: dyspnea disappears, stop the attacks of tachycardia, relieves pain in the heart.If ingestion occurs slowed breathing, slowing of heart rate and blood pressure drop.
recommended for nervous debility, migraine, insomnia, increased sexual excitability, painful menstruation, skin rashes.
used as a soothing warm pains, stimulates the central nervous system, antispasmodic, for dizziness, severe pain in the stomach, poor digestion, fainting and hysterical fits, different neuralgia, insomnia, anemia, shortness of breath, asthma, painful In folk medicine, Melissa officinalis successfullymenstruation, women's diseases, as a laxative and diaphoretic.
Also, Melissa has a beneficial effect on the stomach, brain, particularly in nerve spasms, dizziness and tinnitus.Oil of lemon balm is used for heartbeat, rheumatism, pain in the heart, as a diaphoretic, used inside (no more than 15 drops).
Melissa recommend inside and as a carminative, laxative, diuretic, with neurosis stomach and vomiting in pregnant women.
of fresh flowers are prepared tea, which is drunk cold as a refreshing drink, he's hot as a diaphoretic given, improves metabolism, with dizziness and delayed menstruation.
Own Melissa recognized varieties we have, therefore, are cultivated varieties of foreign selection - Kvedlinburgsniya and Erfurt.
chemical composition and curative properties of Melissa
healing properties of lemon balm - the result of its high content of green mass of essential oil.This biologically active complex - the substance is very complex;among the main component - citronellal, geraniol, citral, linalool.In addition, lemon balm leaves found tannins, bitter, organic acids, flavonoids, mucilages and resins, as well as vitamin A (carotene) and vitamin C.
Bitterness and other compounds that are part of balm (nitrogen and oxygen),cause salivation, increase the secretion of gastric juice, stimulate appetite, have a therapeutic effect with flatulence.Accordingly, these substances find application in treating diseases of the gastrointestinal tract.
essential oil content in leaves and inflorescences melissa in our conditions averages 0.06-0.08% and derived forms - 0,12-0,14%, and the maximum number is at its initial stage of flowering.It leaves - about 5% Condensed tannins, coffee, ursolic and oleanolic acid in seeds and - up to 20% fatty oils.
In fact, this plant with a unique flavor - the whole natural pharmacy.It not only soothes, but also strengthens the nervous system, relieves pain in the heart and shortness of breath, lowers blood pressure, removes spasms in the stomach and intestines;as peppermint, helps with nausea and bloating.Essential oil of lemon balm is capable of shooting more pain and cramps.Due to this quality the plant is widely used as an antispasmodic, analgesic for pain of different localization and origin.Effective drugs with Melissa at the biliary and renal colic, painful periods, toothache.
lemon balm essential oil, like other oils efironosov has a liquid consistency.If it is slightly warmed, it is easily evaporate.That is why in the procurement of aromatic plant leaves can not be dried at high temperatures.However, the rapid evaporation has its advantages: essential oils are great for inhalation.When inhaled, they can easily penetrate into the upper respiratory tract, bronchi and lungs, and to fully exhibit there the disinfectant, antibacterial and anti-inflammatory properties.
Thanks tannins, which many in Melissa, it has excellent anti-inflammatory effect in inflammation and swelling of tissues.
balm herb poultice treat abrasions, skin rashes, inflammation of the gums and mouth.
Infusions of herbs essential to restore normal state of health, emotional balance with nervousness, insomnia, help to cope with this difficult disease amenable to correction as migraine.Relieves bronchial asthma, help with shortness of breath associated with heart and lung failure.Use lemon balm as a fortifying agent after colds and infectious diseases.Through restorative effect balm good use in the cold time of year, because it mobilizes the body's defenses.
Fresh flowers of lemon balm tea is brewed.In his cold drink as a refreshing and soothing drink in the hot - as a diaphoretic.He will improve the metabolism and reduce the dizziness.If you mix lemon balm herb with other herbs efironosnymi, we get an excellent remedy for soothing and aromatic baths for the treatment of allergic dermatitis.In Lithuania, lemon balm herb mixed with marjoram still used as a means of strengthening the memory.
Side effects of the treatment facilities with Melissa not found.
Cultivation: Melissa demanding to heat.Seeds germinate at 10-12 ° C, the optimum temperature for the germination of 20 to 25 ° C.Melissa - photophilous plant.When shading essential oil content is reduced in the leaves, and the plant is less aromatic.
While Melissa and undemanding to soil, but grow best in light of the structural, rather fertile slightly acidic, closer to neutral soils.The increase in soil fertility and fertilization responsive.Propagated by seeds, planting in the ground and through seedlings, vegetative propagation is carried out by division.For the cultivation of lemon balm is best to choose a place that is protected from cold winds, not low, otherwise it will be bad for the winter balm.
Since the autumn of soil dug to a depth of 22 to 27 cm and is made of up to 3 kg / m2 rotted manure, compost or other organic fertilizers, and heavy loams add sand.With spring planting is better to make fertilizer for spring tillage.In the autumn planting of rhizomes can be a balm to a depth of 8-10 cm inter-row spacing of 45 cm. Digging spend a month before planting roots, and for 3-5 days before planting make preplant tillage to a depth of 12 to 15 cm. In the middle zone of the landing conditions rhizomes carried intosecond decade of October.Sowing seeds, transplanting, as well as the division of the bush and the landing of its parts is carried out in the spring.This is the best time for reproduction of lemon balm in the middle lane.Seeds are sown in the early stages with inter-row spacing of 45-60 cm to a depth of 0.5 cm.
Due to the slow development of a balm and a cold spring in the middle lane, and in the northern regions the better to propagate through the balm seedlings or by dividing the bush.Seedlings grown lemon balm as well as basil and sprouts.Planted it in the ground after the threat has passed late last frost, according to the scheme of 45-60 x 20-30 cm. Care is weeding, loosening the soil and watering plantings as needed.
Agrotehnika growing.Site selection.Melissa good is growing at a slightly elevated areas, well-lit and protected from cold north winds.The most favorable for her slightly loamy, friable soil.Since Melissa is a perennial, it is recommended to cultivate in the nearby sites, where it can grow for eight years.The best preceding deemed soiled steam and row crops that follow fertilizers.
soil tillage is carried through the system fall plowing to a depth of 27-30 cm. Soil harrowed early spring, and eventually plowed to a depth of 12-15 cm and carefully harrowed.
fertilization. organic and mineral fertilizers are brought together (for plowing) at the rate of 15-20 t / ha of compost, 2-3 t / ha of superphosphate, 1.5-2.0 t / ha of ammonium sulfate and 0.8-1.0c / ha of potash salt.
Reproduction .Melissa propagated in various ways: sowing seeds directly into the soil, growing seedlings, bushes dividing into parts otsazhivaniem stem and green cuttings (young cuttings).When germination of 60% (usually lemon balm seeds have reduced germination), seeding rate - 8-10 kg / hectare, and depth of termination -. 1-2 cm Sowing should be mulched with compost.When it formed shoots 2-3 pairs of leaves, producing thinning, leaving the distance between them is 30 cm (with aisles of 60 cm).Melissa also multiplies by dividing into parts two- or three-year stems of shrubs and jigging.The latter method is especially useful in the plantations of the first year, which is usually a lot of creeping stems.However, transplant is recommended as soon as possible to the plants until the end of summer is well established and is not destroyed by frost in winter.Good results are obtained by multiplication of young cuttings.
Growing seeds. should be marked at the time of flowering bushes with the most developed large leaves.Plants grown from seeds of shrubs, give the best results (percentage of essential oil is much higher).Given the fact that the seeds of lemon balm ripen not simultaneously, they should be collected in a few taps.Cut off the stalks are tied into small bundles and hang on hangers to dry.
balm Collect seeds during the second half of August - early September.
seeds are dried in the open shed or under a canopy, thrashed in conventional threshing machines, and then passed through a kleveroterki and cleaned seeds on fanning mills with a thick sieve.Small batch plants are threshed by hand in bags with a stick.
Care plantations.Lies it during backwash between rows and weeding weeds.In the second year backwash is performed very early.Throughout the growing season should be made of local organic and mineral fertilizers.At 2-3 dressing over the summer, the last of which should consist only of phosphorus and potassium fertilizers.
Harvesting. Melissa cut at a height of 10 cm from the soil surface.In large areas harvested with conventional mowers, and in small areas - sickles and scythes.As they prepare raw leaves with apical part of the stem.The average yield of dry grass mowing with two, depending on the age of the plants and the conditions of farming is 10-30 kg / ha.
Drying .Melissa is recommended to dry in the dryer, in the shadow of the air or in a well ventilated area, best under a tin roof.
Packaging.spoon 3 times a day.l.l.l.l.