Useful and therapeutic properties of marshmallow
Synonyms: marshmallow, mallow, wild rose, alteynym root alteynym grass, wild poppies, Pryanichnikov.
description.A perennial herb of the family Malvaceae (Malvaceae) about 1.5 m tall, with a strong taproot.Rhizome thick, short mnogogolovchatoe.Stem erect, rounded, woody at the bottom, on top of the green, juicy, low-branched, cylindrical.Middle leaves are alternate, hairy, nizhnesteblevye - Fr Sa-tilopastnye, heart- or ovate, upper - trilopastnye.Length of leaves -. 5-20 cm flowers are pale or bright pink, rarely - white, arranged in the leaf axils, on top of the stem are collected on short stalks, 15-20 mm in diameter.Fruit - a flattened-round mnogose-myanka as prosfiry, when mature splits into separate achenes.It flowers from late June to September;the seeds ripen in July and August.Weight of 1000 seeds - 2,0-2,8 g
Medicinal raw: the root, grass.
locus.It grows mostly in moist meadows, in damp places, flood plains, among the bushes, near ditches, on the banks of ponds and oxbow lakes.
distribution.It grows wild all over Ukraine.It is cultivated in the southern parts of the country.
chemical composition.Marshmallow root contains 30-35% of mucus, 35-37% - of starch, about 2% - asparagine, 8% - sugars, 10-20% pectin, 1.7% fatty oils.The leaves and flowers also contain a considerable amount of mucus, and the essential oil, the fruit - a fatty oil (12%)
Application.As a medicinal herb marshmallow has been known since ancient times.In Greek, "Altos" - "to heal."Althea were treated in ancient Greece and Rome;in the Middle Ages it was cultivated in monastery gardens.
With the purpose of treatment used mainly root, rarely leaves and flowers.Preparations of marshmallow have anti-inflammatory, emollient, expectorant, and enveloping protective effect on the gastric mucosa, prolong the action taken by them with other drugs, slowing their absorption.In science and medicine marshmallow drug use for internal use in the form of decoction or cold brew root for respiratory diseases (chronic bronchitis, tracheitis, gingivitis, pneumonia, asthma, whooping cough) and gastrointestinal (catarrhal condition of the esophagus, gastritis, enterocolitis, stomach and duodenal ulcers, especially accompanied by diarrhea).Infusion and extract, in addition, the inside is used for the treatment of psoriasis and eczema.In folk medicine, a decoction of the root is taken orally in inflammation of the bladder, painful involuntary urination, dyspepsia in children, inflammation of the kidneys, externally - for rinsing the mouth, throat, eye rinsing at an inflammation of the eyelids, for enemas with diarrhea, as well as anti-inflammatory andemollient as a poultice.Milk decoction of the root is used in pulmonary tuberculosis.Avicenna recommended a decoction of the root, leaves and seeds of marshmallow as an emollient with pleurisy, stones in the bladder and even tumors.Root of marshmallow used to prepare pilyulnoy weight and how slimy product as a dietary food.Enter it, and in the thoracic teas.Foreign
practice in the treatment of diseases of the throat, lungs and digestive tract on a par with the roots of the leaves and flowers are used.Marshmallow root is a part of breast tea.
Biological features.In areas of natural habitat medicinal marshmallow prefers damp places.Alkaline and waterlogged soil for its cultivation are unsuitable.
Agrotehnika growing.Site selection.Under the marshmallow should be given a light loam and loamy black soil, structural-textured, clean weeds from moist soils with shallow groundwater.
Because in one place mallow can grow up to 4 years, under him may be withdrawn nearby sites and place it in special rotations of medicinal plants.The best precursors are couples, winter and row crops coming after the fertilizer.
Tillage.Plowing on plowing is carried out to a depth of 25-27 cm, and in areas with little arable horizon - at its full depth.
fertilization.By plowing make humus at the rate of 30-40 t / ha.Positive results are obtained by introducing the main plowing humus with 45-60 kg / ha of phosphate fertilizers and 30-45 kg / ha of potassium.During sowing with the seed beds to make granular superphosphate (30 kg / ha).
reproduction.Propagation marshmallow mostly sowing of the seed in the soil vegetable or grain drill at the rate of 8-10 kg / ha, with inter-row spacing of 70 cm to improve germination of seeds of scarifying -. Fray lightly between two planks, chipped sandpaper, it violates the hard seed coat, thus contributing torapid swelling of the seeds and their germination.The seeds are buried to a depth of 1.5-2 cm. In order to get an early start caring for crops, to the seeds mixed marshmallow plant seeds that germinate quickly (so-called beacon).
Care plantations.After germination spend Sharovka between rows at a depth of 5-7 cm. When the seedlings thickened, with the appearance of 2-3 true leaves, they thin out, leaving each running meter beds for 8-
10 plants.During the summer, the cultivation is carried out 2-4 times
If necessary, transition plantations fluffing and weeding between the rows is carried out during the vegetation period up to and including the moment of closing plants in rows.From the second year of life, plants begin to feed ammonium nitrate at the rate of 30 kg / ha, and before hibernation remove dead parts of marshmallow.
Harvesting.The roots are cleaned from the ground and quickly (within 20-25 minutes), wash with running water, so they do not osliznyalis Roots harvested in early spring (before the regrowth of plants) or in the autumn, perepahivaya moldboard plow to a depth of 25-30 cm..Then cut into pieces 20-25 cm long;the thicker (1.5 cm diameter) and cut along another.Yields air-dry the roots is an average of 10-20 kg / ha.
drying.Dry in a firing oven at a temperature of 40 ° C.
Packaging.The roots are packed in bags and bales of 20-50 kg.
Storage.Roots store in a timber, tightly closed boxes lined with paper, because they are hygroscopic and easily dampen.Powder - a multilayer paper bags, placed in a fabric bag.Pharmacies raw material is stored in glass jars.
Quality requirements.Raw materials must meet the requirements of the State Pharmacopoeia XI (FS-64, pp. 343-344).