Useful and therapeutic properties of ajwain
Synonyms: ayovan, Indian cumin (Carum ajowan Benth et Hook..)
description.An annual herb of the family celery - Apiaceae.Taproot spindly.Stem erect, cylindrical, smooth, branched, 40-80 cm tall. Leaves are alternate, three-pinnatisect into small line segments.The flowers are small, gathered in the complex six-, eight-umbrellas, varying color - from white to purple.Fruit - oblong ribbed dvusemyanki with fragrant smell and spicy taste.Flowering period - June-July;ripening period - August-September.Weight of 1000 seeds - 0.30-0.35 g
Medicinal raw: fruits.
Biological features. ajwain is a heat-loving plant, which is necessary for the full development 130-150 warm days.It grows well in conditions of the southern regions of Ukraine, the Krasnodar region and in Central Asia.When ripe, ajwain seeds showered him greatly.Currently azhgon wild does not occur.Homeland it is considered to India (it is known that in the mountainous regions of India, there are many similar species).Ajwain grows in North Africa an
chemical composition.ajwain seeds contain 2-11% essential oil, which includes 40-60% thymol.The climatic conditions of Kiev ajwain gives the essential oil yield of 3.5-5.5% on air-dry material.The composition of essential oils, in addition to the thymol, include: cymene, pinene, ISO-linen, R-terpinene, p-phellandrene, dipentene, etc.
Application..ajwain seeds contain essential oil, the main component of which is a valuable ingredient thymol.The latter is widely used in medicine as antiseptic strong, and
pro- perfume industry in the manufacture of toothpastes and elixirs.In addition, the essential oil contains Timen remaining after the distillation of thymol and used in soap production.In Africa, ajwain seeds are used as a seasoning for various dishes.From waste ajwain (straw) produce different paper grades.
Agrotehnika growing.Site selection.Under ajwain should allocate areas that are protected from the cold north-easterly winds.The most favorable loose, well-leaky, loamy and schebenchatye soil fertile enough.The rotation ajwain should be placed on winter crops, reaching fertilizer couples.Good predecessors considered and row crops (beets, potatoes), as well as sage and basil.
Tillage.If the predecessor ajwain was winter, soil preparation begins with stubble breaking, and in September produced the main plowing on plowing to a depth of 22-25 cm plow with coulters.In the spring after the close of moisture soil plowed to a depth of 14-15 cm, followed by harrowing.
fertilization.Manure or humus is made under the previous culture.If ajwain unfertilized sown by the predecessor, then by autumn plowing should make fertilizer at the rate of: ammonium sulphate - 2 kg / ha of superphosphate - 3 t / ha and potassium salt - 1 kg / ha.
reproduction.Ajwain propagated by sowing seeds in the soil.Sow it early (at the same time with early crops).Sowing produce tractor seeders with row widths of 45 cm Seeding depth is 2-3 cm and the seeding rate -. 5-6 kg / ha.When podzimny sowing date seeding rate increased to 8.7 kg / ha, and the seal depth was reduced to 1 cm.
When podzimny sowing should be for row crops, the autumn plowing is carried out not later than the first half of October to the same depth.Presowing (harrowing, followed by cultivation with harrowing) is done at the end of October.
Care plantations.In early spring podzimny sowing should be harrowed across rows.Shortly thereafter
Sharovka carried out inter-row weeding and the weeds in the rows.To accelerate the germination period in advance spring sowing seed fermentation is carried out by soaking in warm water at 45 ° C for 15 min.When the seedlings appear, produce Sharovka.Further care of plantations is between the rows hoeing and weeding.
Harvesting is done during wax ripeness seed umbrellas on the second order.This point is in any case can not miss, as ajwain seeds quickly fall off, and it leads to crop failure.Stow ajwain in the morning or in the evening, that is,dew, harvesters, and in the absence of the latter, you can use ordinary cleaning machines with zernoulovitelyami.
drying.Harvested plants knit into small bundles, which put in Suslonov to dry for two or three days.Dried sheaves morning dumped on the current and immediately threshed grain to grind.Clean the seed to produce fanning mills and sorting.
Chaff ajwain also processed because it contains up to 1.0-1.5% of essential oil.The average yield of ajwain seeds is 8-10 t / ha, but the best crop farms receive up to 20 t / ha.
Storage.ajwain fruits should be stored in a dry, well-ventilated area, loose in bins or bags.The bags are mounted on podtovarnikah stacks.
Quality requirements.Seeds (fruits) of ajwain should be well dried;Humidity them should not exceed 14%;impurities (the fruits of other plants, soil, sand, and so on. n.) are not allowed.Azhgonovoe oil should be colorless, yellow or brown liquid, which can be separated crystals of thymol.The share of oil shall be equal to 0,897-0,916, and phenols content - not less than 35%.