Useful and therapeutic properties of anise
description.An annual herb of the family celery - a height of 30-50 cm with a thin spindle-shaped root.Stem erect, branched from the top, rounded, covered with short fuzz.Lower leaves separately, with long petioles;medium with short petioles, pinnatisect, divided into three lobes;upper leaves almost no petiole (sessile) and dissected into narrow lobes.The flowers are small, gathered in the complex umbrellas with white corolla.Blooms in July-August.Fruit - dvusemyanki with specific characteristic aniseed smell.
taste astringent, sweetish.Weight of 1000 seeds - 2-4 of
Medicinal raw: fruits.
Biological features.Anise is a water-loving and thermophilic cultures.So, with a lack of moisture in the soil it sprouts are often sparse.Cold weather during flowering causes diseases of inflorescences and leads to weak ozernennosti umbrellas.In wet weather there is insufficient pollination, resulting in reduced seed yield.Rainy weather during the filling and seed maturation contributes to blackening of fruit and re
Distribution.In the wild anise is found only on the island of Chios (Aegean Islands).His birthplace - Asia Minor.Cultivated in almost all countries of the world:. Italy, France, Holland, Japan, Spain, Turkey, India, China, Mexico, Chile and other anise is cultivated in the CIS, mainly in the Voronezh and Belgorod regions.
chemical composition.The amount of essential oil of anise seed in the range from 2 to 4% and the oil content of anethole -from 80 to 90%.
Application.Fruits of anise is widely used in cosmetics, pharmaceutical and food industry, in medicine.The leaves are eaten as a salad garnish.Fruits and essential oil used for sdabrivaniya bread and confectionery products, soups, sauces, stews, pickles and so on. D. In Turkey anise produce vodka "duzino" and absinthe in France.
very popular in folk medicine used anise drops.A decoction from anise seeds are often used
tharkivayuschee tool as a means of facilitating asthma attacks, and as a means of increasing the amount of milk in nursing mothers.
Anise is also a good honey plant.Medoproduktivnost 1 ha anise is 50-100 kg.
Agrotehnika growing.Site selection.The most favorable for the anise are considered black earth fertile soils, clean of weeds that have good structure.The best are the forerunners of winter walking on soiled pairs, and row crops.Under anise should be given equal areas cleared of weeds, since the latter is easy to choke his seedlings.
Tillage.Following the cleaning of grain produce shallow plowing, and in September plow plowing the soil to a depth of 22-25 cm. In early spring moisture close harrowing, and before planting the soil is cultivated and harrowed simultaneously.
fertilization.Depending on the fertility of the soil under the anise, besides the basic fertilizer before the autumn plowing is made on the basis of mineral fertilizers: phosphorus - 60 kg / ha and potassium - 30 kg / ha.Nitrogen fertilizers in the amount of 45 kg / ha is made during the spring sowing in rows.To obtain a high yield in a period of growth produces two fertilizing with organic or mineral fertilizers.
reproduction.Anise propagated by sowing seeds in the soil tractor vegetable planter disk SOD-24 at the rate of 10-11 kg / ha in a band at 45 cm between rows in, and clean of weeds from the fields of solid Drill way for 12-14 kg / ha.Seeding depth - 2-3. See Anis sown simultaneously with early spring crops.
Care plantations.Loosening and weeding between the rows of weeds in rows produced as needed.To improve the yield and quality of anise fruits during flowering is recommended artificial doopylenie crops.
Harvesting.Anise is harvested in the early morning or late evening to avoid the shedding of seeds.Begin harvesting when ripe should be 50-60% of umbrellas on the main branches of the first order of grain harvesters, which are equipped with special devices.On the small-PLO Schadyah and in areas unsuitable for harvesting, crop irayut simple harvesting machines fitted with
governmental them zernoulovitelyami during fruit ripening on the central umbrella.After mowing harvesters anise tied into small snopiki that put in Suslonov 30-40 pieces to dry.Hammer anise bread threshing machines, in which a few deck is lowered in order to avoid crushing the seeds.
average yield varies from 4 to 9 t / ha, and in the best farms get yields of 10-12 t / ha.
After threshing seeds purified by fanning mills and sorting, and then finally dried in air or in a dryer at a temperature not higher than 40-50 ° C.raw material moisture should not exceed 12%.passed through a sorting "Kuskuta" For the final cleaning of anise seeds.
Quality requirements.anise fruit must meet the requirements of the GF-X (FS-30, pp. 281-282).
Growing seeds.To obtain high-quality seed is withdrawn permanent seed plots in each field crop rotation.In seed plots all work is carried out at a high agrotechnical background.Sow seeds of varietal first class.
on fields set aside for seed lots, the following additional work:.. Snow retention, irrigation with insufficient soil humidity, artificial doopylenie and varietal weeding to remove atypical plants of the class, as well as the sick, ugly, etc. Varietal weeding carried out threetimes during the summer: at the beginning and end of flowering and before harvest.Anise is removed in phase umbrellas bronzing on most plants.Cleaning of seeds from the seed plots, drying them, sorting and storage are carried out separately from the seeds of technical plantations, harvested for industrial purposes.For sowing select the most large and viable seeds.