peanuts (groundnuts) (Arachis hypogaea L.) - an annual herbaceous plant that belongs to the legume family.
Synonyms : peanuts, Chinese walnut.
description. An annual herbaceous plant of the legume family (Fabaceae) in height 20-60 cm. Taproot branched.Strong root system (out to a depth of 130-160 cm and a side for more than 100 cm).Leaves are alternate, pubescent, paripinnate consisting of four leaves.Flowers yellow, arranged in the leaf axils.After self-pollination and fertilization cleistogamous lower, ie,zakrytotsvetuschih flowers, the ovary begins to lengthen.In particular threadlike ginofore ovary falls to the ground and deepened the ovary with the fruit into the soil to a depth of 10 cm, which is gradually expanding, form bean (fruit).Peanuts because peanuts and call that the fetus develops its land and consists of a number of seeds (one to four, but usually two or three).Weight of 1000 seeds is 350-500 g
Ripening in an unusual peanut, and flowers on the same plant three varieties.Small f
The fruit contains one to three seeds covered with reddish coating.
homeland peanuts or peanut, considered the Old World.In Europe, peanuts came from China, and it was called "Chinese peanuts."However, in China, he came from Brazil in the XVI century.In Russia, peanuts appeared in the XVIII century.The first landing was carried out in the south, in the district of Odessa, and then it began to grow in the south of Ukraine, the Caucasus and Central Asia.
Medicinal raw: beans.The benefits of peanuts, see here.
Biological features. Peanut is a drought-resistant, heat, moisture, and light-loving plants.Flowering time - a very long, lasting from mid-June to frost the most, so under one of the shrubs there are beans with varying degrees of maturity.Vernalization peanuts at a temperature 22-30 ° C showed that this method reduces the length of the growing season for 10-15 days and increase the harvest of beans to 13-17%.
Distribution. Hitherto peanuts underground in the wild is not found.Most researchers believe that it is the birthplace of Brazil, t. To. There found eight other forms of peanuts grown in the wild.
In the culture of peanuts occupies large areas in India, China, Japan, Nigeria, Burma, Argentina, Senegal, Sudan, Paraguay.
is cultivated in Central Asia, the Krasnodar region, the Caucasus and the south of Ukraine.
chemical composition.The beans peanut food contains 48-50% non-drying oil, about 15%, and krahma about 30% protein, stalks and leaves contain about 12% protein, 2% fat and 45-48% starch.The same substances are rich in other parts of groundnut (shell, seed coat), which are highly nutritious feed for livestock.
Application. Peanut yields valuable products for a number of sectors of the economy.Peanut oil is used in margarine, soap and canning industrial-laziness.Waste oil mills produce a Makukha go on manufacturing halvah and flour -.. In confectionery, as an impurity in chocolate, cocoa, etc. From peanut beans manufactures candy, and they are delicious in its natural form.Peanut fatty oil used in medicine for the manufacture of parenteral dosage forms on a par with almond butter, and beans are used as a substitute for almonds.
site selection. Peanut grows well on light soils, black earth, but are most favorable for him loam and sandy loam with adequate fertility.The best are the forerunners of winter walking fertilization, and in irrigated areas - vegetable crops.
Tillage. soil preparation for peanuts should begin with stubble breaking and then make plowing on plowing to a depth of 25-27 cm. In early spring, the soil is harrowed in two tracks, and before sowing cultured followed by harrowing.
fertilization. plowing on plowing should make 10-15 kg / ha of manure mixed with granular superphosphate in the amount of 1-2 kg / ha, and potassium salt of 0.5-1.0 t / ha.
reproduction. Peanut multiplies directly sowing seeds into the soil.For five to eight days before seeding beans purified by peanut shell on special machines.Sowing produce special drills CA-6G or cotton and corn seeders SC-G-6.Sowing is recommended when the topsoil temperature reaches 13-15 ° C.The seeding rate of 50-80 kg / ha (depending on the amount of beans) and embedding depth - 7.4 cm size
power -. 70x25 (30) cm, and irrigation conditions - 70x10 (15), see density placement.plant regulated thinning them in two-leaf stage.The use of square-cluster method of increasing peanut yield by 1.5 t / ha and twice reduces labor costs.
Care plantations is to systematically loosening of row spacing and weeding in rows.Such loosening during the summer should be performed three to five times the depth of 8-12 cm. In the humid summer and in irrigated areas peanuts spud during flowering, burying in the ground ginofor.In July, producing coinage, iecut the tops of the main stem, resulting in greatly increased yield.
Harvesting. Peanuts harvested arahisopodemnikami.After airing shrubs placed in tents and stacks for ripening and drying the beans.
drying.In case of delayed harvesting with the onset of the rainy weather damp beans are dried in a dryer at a temperature of about 40 ° C.
At high the agricultural technician and good care peanut crop reaches 8-10 t / ha, and in the conditions of irrigation can be achieved yield 20 c / ha.
Packaging .Beans peanuts packaged in a clean, dry whole bags.Storage must be carried out under conditions ensuring complete safety from damage and infestation.
to quality requirements.Beans peanuts must meet the requirements of GOST 7078/54.
Vyrashivanie seeds.For seed seed lot was placed in a field with a total planting, but separated from the latter pegs.Seed plots apply agricultural techniques with high fertilization and thorough care.Before harvesting a seed plot ripped patients, atypical and underdeveloped plants and conduct approbation.Harvesting, threshing, drying and storage of groundnuts from the seed plot is carried out separately from the crop to total crop.
for sowing the seed plot of the next year during the harvest are selected healthy and strong plant with a good crop of beans.Harvesting, threshing and storage of selected plants is carried out separately.