Useful and therapeutic properties of ginseng
Synonyms: Panax ginseng, man-root, ginseng present.
description.A perennial herb of the family Aralia (Araliaceae).Root yellow stem, fleshy length of 20-25 cm and a thickness of 2.0-2.5 cm, with two to six major ramifications (processes) that form sometimes resemble a human figure.In soil, the roots are placed obliquely, sometimes
horizon tally.The height of the stalk -. 30-80 cm Stem thin, straight, cylindrical, green or brownish-red, single.The socket consists of three to five leaves palmate, located on top of the stem.Dominated pyatipalchato dlinnochereshkovye leaves.average leaf length of 4-15 cm, and the width of 2,2-4,0 cm inflorescence -. a simple umbrella.The length of the flower stalk -. 18-24 cm The flowers are inconspicuous, bisexual, with a greenish-white petals.Fruit - the bright red berries, with one or two flat seeds.The flesh is poisonous.
medicinal raw materials: roots.
Biological features.Under natural conditions, ginseng slowly grows and develops.Wild ginseng seeds, sown soon afte
Under natural conditions, ginseng is very rare.It almost completely destroyed during the hundreds of years.Maximum weight of the roots of wild ginseng is 300-400 at the age of 150-200 years, but these roots are found only rarely.Natural ginseng reserves more and more depleted.Ginseng is preserved only in particularly favorable conditions for him, therefore, it belongs to the relict plant.
Distribution.In the wild ginseng found in Korea, China, in the south Khabarovsk Krai and Primorye.
grows in remote and shady places in coniferous and mixed forests, gorges, deep mountain valleys
on loose soil humus.Most often, it grows in groups in mixed deciduous and pine forests on well drenovannoy soil.
Growing ginseng in the culture was known in ancient times.Cultivating his long practiced in China, Japan, Korea and other Eastern countries.
The Russian ginseng first tested in the St. Petersburg Botanical Garden in 1905. He is currently a cart-used to do in the Far East (in the southern regions) and in the South Caucasus.
chemical composition.The main active ingredients of ginseng are the triterpene glycosides (panaksozidy A, B, C, D, E, F, G), essential oil, pectin, micro and macro elements.
Application.Ginseng has long enjoyed great popularity among the eastern peoples.The Chinese, for example, wild ginseng is used in the treatment of many diseases, including tuberculosis.Different preparations made from ginseng, tincture and alcohol use for nervous exhaustion and atherosclerosis as a tonic and stimulating means which acts on the central nervous system.Ginseng preparations increase the physical and mental abilities of man.The biological activity of cultivated ginseng in the half torus-two times lower than wild.The fruit pulp is poisonous, causing vomiting and inflammation of the mucous membrane.
Agrotehnika growing.Site selection.Ginseng grown in culture or under forest canopy or in open areas.When cultured under its canopy of forest plantations should be located on the slopes of the uncool.It was found that the most favorable for the ginseng, dry deciduous forests, where there are conifers (last pritenyayut ginseng until the leaves).
In open areas ginseng is cultivated exclusively under constant artificial shading using canopies (straw mats, wooden sheds and boards).For this purpose, fertile chosen equal portions.
is best ginseng grows on brown forest soils, well-drained, with plenty of humus layer.
Tillage.Allotted land should be well clear of fallen trees, dead wood and stumps.Thereafter, it is necessary to plow the full depth of the humus layer.
fertilization.By plowing in growing ginseng under forest canopy is made of sheet humus at the rate of 40-60 t / ha.The cultivation of ginseng in the open area beneath the main autumn plowing is recommended to make 100-250 tonnes / ha of compost or leaf compost.On clay soils in conjunction with organic manure should be added to 100-200 t / ha of coarse sand.
reproduction.To preview growing seedlings under the canopy of the forest are assigned the best in fertility and other featured sites in the forest, which is made by digging the forest humus (60 t / ha) with coarse sand (25 t / ha).Before sowing the seeds of the beds in the nursery areas are marked in two directions at a distance of 15x15 or 10x10 cm. In places of crossing sown one seed to a depth of 2-3 cm. After planting hole sprinkle a layer of soil 1.5-3.0 cm. If the appearanceseedling natural shading is insufficient, creating additional artificial shelters using a height of 40-60 cm.
seedlings are planted to a permanent place in the early spring in the hole to a depth of 10-12 cm in the area of food 50X40 cm.
ginseng cultivation in open areas andIt is produced by first growing seedlings.In this case, since the autumn they prepare seedlings beds, in which the seeds are sown before winter ginseng (or spring).On the beds make canopies to shade seedlings.During the summer, as necessary loosen the nurseries, and with the onset of cold weather they are covered with a layer of leaves and shoot the winter shading.Much later remove the shadow and in the southern regions (south of Primorye and the Caucasus).Spring seedlings are planted to a permanent place (also on the beds) in two rows at 5040 cm area of food. Above the beds set sheds 100-120 cm in height on the south side and the north of 120-140 cm.In addition, give the wall to shade the sides to avoid lighting the sun from 9 to 15 hours.
Care plantations is to systematically loosening between the rows, weeding and maintaining the necessary soil moisture (watering).Especially should be watered frequently ginseng in open areas.To ginseng root collar was covered with earth, in the second half of summer ground cover ridges humus thickness 1.0-1.5 cm.
Harvesting.If in vivo harvesting the largest ginseng root is valued the most weight of about 100 g ieold root at the age of about 50 years, in terms of culture roots should be removed on the fourth to eighth year of life.
In terms of culture roots harvested in late summer with small shovels, being careful not to damage the roots and keep the entire lobe.Depending on the quality of their roots are sent for drying or rent fresh on the procurement item.Often the roots canned in sugar syrup.
Besides ginseng, used in medical practice pyatilistnogo ginseng roots (Panax quinque-folius L.) and creeping ginseng (Panax repens Maxim.).First grows in North America, and the latter in Japan.
Growing seeds.Harvest seeds ginseng gives a tre-tego-fourth year of culture.Berries start when they become red.Harvested fruit is ground with coarse sand and then washed with running water to get rid of the pulp.After washing the seeds a little dried for 2-3 hours in the shade and immediately pour into glass bottle with a wet pre-washed river sand.The seeds are then placed in a washed and calcined sand and then put in a pottery, where to maintain a certain humidity.As such, the seeds are stored until October and November, iebefore the appearance of most of the seeds gap between the doors of the outer shell.Seeds with good shutters to reveal stored until spring in a dry sand at a temperature of not more than 10-12 ° C, and the seeds from bad to reveal doors can be sown before winter in the soil.