Useful and therapeutic properties of the Moldovan zmeegolovnika
Synonyms: mother liquor, Turkish balm, drakonogolovnik.
description.An annual herb of the family yasnotkovyh (Lamiaceae) height of about 55-80 cm. The stem is quadrangular, erect, branched.The leaves are opposite, petiolate.The flowers are pale purple, located circular tiers around the stems to form racemose inflorescence on the main stem and lateral branches.Seeds are small, oblong, dark brown in color, length up to 3 mm and a diameter of 1.5 mm.
medicinal raw materials: grass.
Biological features.Flowering and seed maturation uneven: it begins with the lower layers and gradually rises.
Distribution.In the wild zmeegolovnika found in Europe and Asia (Mongolia, Western Himalayas).In the CIS is growing in the Altai region, the Baikal region, Western and Eastern Siberia.In the wild state as a weed common in Ukraine, Belarus and the Volga (Saratov and Volgograd regions).It grows on stony, rocky slopes.
zmeegolovnika The culture was cultivated in the Volga region, in the south-west of Ukraine, in the Cr
chemical composition.The dry leaves zmeegolovnika contains an essential oil, a component of which is an aldehyde citral (40-50%).The yield of essential oil zmeegolovnika varies depending on the cultivation conditions from 0.078 to 0.784% on a fresh weight and from 0,235
to 2.8% dry weight.Furthermore, zmeegolovnika contains up to 20% fat, drying oil.
Application.Zmeegolovnika used in the perfume, candy, soap and alcoholic beverage industries.It is cultivated primarily for producing an essential oil from which citral obtained.Last zmeegolovnika makes lemon scent and is a source of ionone, is used in the manufacture of the best varieties of soaps and perfumes.In folk medicine, it is a substitute for lemon balm.
Agrotehnika growing.Site selection.Under zmeegolovnika should place clean of weeds, fertile soil.The best are the forerunners of winter walking on soiled pairs, and row crops.
Tillage.The main tillage is performed by the general rules of the system autumn plowing.In September, it requires deep plowing on 22-25 cm. Deep plowing on plowing after row crops produce immediately after harvesting.In early spring moisture harrowing close.Then the soil is ready for planting.In the case of severe soil compaction need more cultivation and harrowing.
fertilization.Organic or mineral fertilizers are applied under the deep autumn plowing of this calculation: manure or compost - 15-30 t / ha of ammonium nitrate - 0.8-1.0 t / ha of superphosphate - 2.0-2.5 t / ha andpotassium salt - 0.8-1.0 t / ha.If organic fertilizers since autumn has not been amended, the required amount of fertilizer should be made for seedbed preparation in the spring.
reproduction.Zmeegolovnika propagated by sowing seeds in the soil in the spring or before winter.Spring planting should be carried out as soon as possible.sowing method shirokorjadnyj or tape (one- or two-line).In the latter case, the distance between the strips must be 40-50 cm and 18-25 cm between the lines. The best results are obtained by two-belt method of sowing.Thus on 1 hectare get more plants than when sown in wide.Seeding rate at seeding belt is 8-10 kg / ha, while in wide - 5-6 kg / ha.Seeding depth - 2-3. See podzimny seed produced in late autumn before the frost.
Care plantations is to systematically loosening between the rows with simultaneous weeding in rows.two or three fertilizing organic fertilizer should be carried out to obtain high yields.
Harvesting.Zmeegolovnika harvested in early bloom, the fees are only the leaves and flowers.There are two cleaning methods: crude (green) and weight on a dry weight basis.In the first case, the cleaning is done at the time of the appearance of buds and no later than the beginning of flowering.Crop material is processed immediately in order to avoid large losses of essential oils.By cleaning by dry weight commence later, i.e.at the beginning of flowering.In both cases, the cleaning is done by conventional reaper, and in small areas by hand.
After drying zmeegolovnika sent for recycling or piled in stacks of 8 m long, 4 m wide and up to 5 m for temporary storage.Humidity dry grass should not exceed 16-18%.The average yield of green mass zmeegolovnika is 80-120 kg / ha, and dry grass 15-20 c / ha.
Growing seeds.To obtain seeds select the best items at the best zmeegolovnika on the growth of grass plantations or technical lay special seed plots on more fertile soils.Testes removed header or a scythe, when the seeds will become brown color.To prevent large losses of seeds, cleaning should be done on a cloudy day or in the early morning dew.During harvesting the plants bind in bundles and placed in a Suslonov for three or four days to dry.Threshing produce grain thresher.After threshing, winnowing the seeds to purify and finally dried under a canopy on the canvas.Vintage zmeegolovnika seeds on average 7-15 kg / ha.