Useful and therapeutic properties of medicinal hyssop
description.Long-term shrub yaenotkovyh family (Lamiaceae) height of about 30-60 cm. Woody root, stem, branched.Stems quadrangular, erect, woody at the bottom.Leaves opposite, sessile, linear-lanceolate, entire, pubescent, 2-4 cm long. The flowers are dark blue, purple, rarely pink or white.Fruit dry, consisting of four seeded nutlets small, dark brown, 2-3 mm long.Weight of 1000 seeds - about 0.9, the flowering period - July to September.
medicinal raw materials: grass.
Biological features. Hyssop officinalis is wintering - and drought-resistant plant.After the first mowing young branches grow again and they re-bloom in September, iehyssop in a single summer can produce two crops.
Due to the extended period of bloom on a bush found all phases of flower development and all phases of ripening.Starting from the second year of culture hyssop can produce products up to ten years in one place.
Distribution.In the wild form is found in southern Europe and western Asia.In the CIS is growi
Ukraine Hyssopus officinalis is common enough;it is cultivated mainly in the botanical gardens, experimental stations and gardens.
chemical composition.The herb contains essential oil, flavonoids, triterpene acids, tannins and bitter substances, dyes.
Application.The flowers and the upper part of the grass hyssop used in folk medicine as an expectorant in chronic catarrh of the respiratory tract, asthma, rheumatism.Infusion of hyssop is recommended as a wound-healing agent.It is also used as a spice for salads, sauces, soups, vegetable and meat dishes;in the alcoholic beverage industry it is used to make herbal liqueurs.Hyssop cultivated on apiaries as a good honey plant, from which the bees are taking a lot of nectar and pollen.
Agrotehnika growing.Site selection.Under the hyssop should be given sun exposed areas.The most favorable light, friable soil with good aeration, sredneplodorodnye rich in lime.Hyssop should be placed on nearby areas as a perennial.
Tillage.The main plowing is done to a depth of 25-27 cm. If the predecessor was winter, the processing begins with stubble breaking, and if tilled crop, the deep plowing is needed immediately after harvesting row crops.In early spring harrowed land, and before planting the soil plowed to a depth of 10-12 cm. Lumpy soil should be used katkovanie.
fertilization.Organic fertilizers are applied in -calculation: 20-30 t / ha of manure by plowing in the southern regions of Ukraine and 30-40 t / ha of manure in the forest-steppe zone;2-3 kg / ha of superphosphate and 0.8-1.0 t / ha of potash salt.
reproduction.Hyssop propagated by dividing the bushes apart, cuttings and sowing seeds directly into the ground.With a limited amount of seed used green cuttings in early spring in greenhouses or in warm ridges followed by planting seedlings to a permanent place.Sowing the seeds produced in the early spring or fall into the ridge, and when there will be shoots well get stronger, they are planted on permanent place at a distance of 25-30 cm from each other with a width between rows 60-70 cm depth of seeding 2-3 cm. HighSquare crop can be produced planter.Seeding rate - 9-10 kg / ha.
reproduction by dividing the bushes in early spring produce.The individual bushes are planted slightly deeper than the maternal bush, to better developed root system.During the multiplication by dividing the bushes hyssop develops faster than when sowing seeds.
Care plantations is the systematic three-five times between the rows hoeing during the summer and weeding.To obtain a high yield should be made one or two feeding local organic fertilizers in the form of a slurry at the rate of 3-5 t / ha or poultry manure in the amount of 4-5 kg / ha.In the absence of the last organic replace mineral fertilizers - 20-35 kg / ha of nitrogen, 20-35 kg / ha of phosphorus and 20-35 kg / ha of active ingredient potassium.
Harvesting.Hyssop is intended for medicinal purposes harvested before flowering, and the one from which the essential oil - at the beginning of flowering.Cleaning is cutting the above-ground parts of plants.
drying.After removing the thick woody and bare stems and leaves of the grass hyssop darkened dried in attics, under a tin roof, under the eaves and in the dryer.
Middle hyssop herb harvest, depending on climatic and agronomic conditions is in the range 12-30 kg / ha.
Packaging.Well dried herb hyssop packed in bales or bales weighing 50-75 kg.
Storage.Hyssop should be stored in a dry and well-ventilated area;We can not allow the grinding of leaves and flowers during storage.
From other species of hyssop in the eastern part of Ukraine found in the wild in the chalky outcrops hyssop Cretaceous (N. cretaceus Dubjansk.).According to its physical and chemical properties it resembles an ordinary hyssop.