Useful and therapeutic properties of iris
Synonyms: toffees, bettas.
description.A perennial herb of the family kasatikovyh (Iridaceae) 60-80 cm tall. Rhizome fleshy, thick, light-brown, having the lower side of adventitious roots.At the bottom of the rhizomes post
foam die off, leaving behind a newly formed klubnekorni, at the upper ends of which grow leaves and stems.The leaves of iris ensiform, vaginal, entire, bluish-green color, length 40-50 cm flowering shoots erect, gray-green color.;top flowering shoots are located on two to four flowers.The flowers are large, bisexual, odnopokrovnye.Blossoms in May-June.Fruit - triangular box;Seeds flattened, dark brown, wrinkled.Weight of 1000 seeds - about 80-85 g
In nature, occurs more than 100 species of iris, but the commercial value are just a few.This Florentine iris (I. florentina L.), German iris (I. ger-manica L.) and iris pale or yellow (I. pallida Lam.).
German Iris has a cylindrical, highly branched rhizome;its share of the pericarp of the flower are blue-purple color.Flowers Florenti
medicinal raw materials: the rhizomes.
Biological features."Orris root", made from the rhizomes of iris, fresh has an unpleasant smell, but after drying for three or four months, gradually acquiring the fragrance of violets.
Distribution.Different types of iris are found in subtropical and temperate latitudes, and in the mountainous areas on the Mediterranean coast.It grows in the Caucasus, Siberia, Central Asia, the Far East, in Belarus, Ukraine.The culture is cultivated in France, Germany, Italy and the USA and the CIS - mainly in the Crimea, the Caucasus and Moldova as an aromatic plant.Iris is cultivated in the botanical gardens and experimental stations as an ornamental plant.
chemical composition.Iris rhizome essential oil contained in an amount of 0.1-0.4% on a dry basis.The most valuable part of the essential oil is Iron (5-40%).The rhizomes contain iridium as glucoside, starch, fatty oil (10.9%), tannins and organic acids.
Application.It is cultivated for essential oil.This oils are the basic product - the irony used in the perfume industry.Furthermore, use of iris powder extracted from its dry rhizomes.Made from iris flour is used in confectionery and distillery industries.Iris rhizomes are used in the form of so-called "orris" which give children chew when they are teething.They are also used for catarrh of the upper respiratory tract, inflammation of the lungs, liver, gallbladder, colitis.
Agrotehnika growing.Site selection.The most favorable are marl and calcareous soil with good permeability.The rotations iris should be placed on the couple, if planting is done in autumn or after winter wheat when planting produce spring.Iris is recommended to cultivate in the nearby sites as a long-term culture.
Tillage.For autumn planting couples are treated in such a way that, by this time the soil was loose and clean of weeds.This requires a systematic cultivation of steam, and in September to plant iris.For spring planting in the fall is necessary plowing to a depth of 27-30 cm, and in the spring after the close of the soil moisture and treated cultivators immediately planted processes.Fall planting as compared to the spring provides a more complete planting.
fertilization.Before the autumn plowing is recommended to apply fertilizer at the rate of 3-4 kg / ha of superphosphate and 2.0-2.5 t / ha of potash salt.
reproduction.Iris propagated mainly apical portions of roots - processes which have their own root system.Scion they prepare on the two-year plantations intended for plowing.Larger processes (up to 30-60 g) give the best results
.Planting should be done immediately after harvesting processes using double-hulled tractor plow.Row spacing of 60 cm, and the distance in rows - 30 cm.
Care plantations.If the landing is made in the autumn, it is necessary to examine in early spring plantation and detection of plants sticking out of the soil to transplant them to another location or to bury the old place into the ground.Further care is the systematic loosening between rows at a depth of 6-10 cm and weeding in rows as needed.The last cultivation is carried out in autumn at a depth of 12-14 cm, followed by hilling plants.
should be removed When the stems (vershkovanie);it increases productivity.
Harvesting is done by tractor plow, and in small areas of spades.The best harvest time is the period of budding, when the iris accumulate a maximum of essential oil.Rhizomes are extracted from the ground, after the plow passes are collected and immediately sent to the sink.After the pre-wash rhizomes and cutting them leaves require a secondary, more thorough cleaning.Clean the rhizome is dried and sent for processing at the factory.Yields of iris rhizomes with good care is 50-80 kg / ha.
greatest effect gives a two-year culture of iris rhizomes both the crop and on the exit of the essential oil.
Quality requirements.In finished form the raw material of the iris should consist of a dense, heavy, somewhat flattened dichotomously-branched rhizome pieces, no longer than 14 cm, a width of up to 4 cm, white or yellowish color with a faint pleasant smell.
iris rhizomes should contain at least 0.1% essential oil and not more than 5% ash.