Useful and therapeutic properties of castor bean
Synonyms: paradise tree, castor oil, ricin, wondrous tree, paradise tree, Turkish hemp klyachische.
description.In tropical conditions castor grows in one place for up to 10 years.This is a perennial tree plant family Euphorbiaceae (Euphorbiaceae) height of 10-13 m with 30-50 cm.
stem thickness in Southern Europe castor is a two-three-shrub up to 3-5 m. In the CIS, it is known as an annual herbaceousplant up to 2 m, although individual species and its reach 3-5 m in height.The stem is hollow, greenish or reddish.Taproot penetrates to a depth of 2-4 m and 2 m side. The branches are bare, green, reddish or brownish, mostly with a waxy coating.Leaves alternate, long-petiolate, large (up to 1 m in diameter), bright, with 7-11 lobes.Inflorescence - tapered brush up to 50 cm, at the bottom of which are men, and at the top - the female flowers.Fruit - trehgnezdnaya capsule with one seed in the nest;seed oval, shiny, mottled or mosaic.Weight of 1000 - seed 70-1000 of
medicinal raw materials: seeds.
Biological features.Castor is the heat, light and moisture-loving culture, demanding to soil fertility.In areas where during the summer rainfall is less than 200 mm of rainfall, its cultivation is unreliable.Castor has many forms and varieties that are divided into two main groups: the big seeds and Small Grain.The latter have a higher oil content - about 50-60%, big seeds contain up to 40-50% of oil.In Ukraine, the most common varieties of castor Small Grain.
Distribution.In the wild form is found in India, Ceylon and Java, in the tropical western Africa, in the Near East and Central Asia and Afghanistan.
homeland is considered to tropical Africa.Castor, alongside a lyvaetsya in almost all countries of the world (India, on about. Ceylon, China, France, Italy, Spain, Portugal, and so on. D.).World center for the production of its seed is India.
CIS castor cultivated as an annual plant in the Northern Caucasus, Ukraine, Volgograd and Rostov regions, as well as in the Central Asian countries.
chemical composition.The castor seed contains proteins, gums, resins and up to 52% non-drying fatty castor oil, which includes poisonous alkaloid, ricin.
Application.Castor oil is derived from castor seeds, it has a very wide application.it is used as a safe purgative in medicine;used also in the ocular and gynecology;It recommended in the treatment of ulcers, burns, to soften the skin in the form of ointments and balms;It helps to improve hair growth.It used in the textile industry in the manufacture of paints, in the aviation industry for the lubrication of fast rotating motors like not freeze in the cold;in tanning industry to soften the skin, in the soap, perfume, paint and metal industries;used in the manufacture of linoleum, for the production of strong tsementazamazki in construction and so on. n. castor stems get rough fiber for ropes.
Agrotehnika growing.Site selection.The most favorable for castor black soil with a good structure.The best precursors are considered winter, reaching a couple of fertilizer.High yields gives castor and sandy and loamy fertile black earth.
Tillage.Autumn plowing produce two to three weeks after stubble breaking to a depth of 27-30 cm. Harrowed field early spring and then cultivated to a depth of 10-12 cm, followed by harrowing.
Before sowing repeated cultivation palmate cultivators to a depth of 7-10 cm than reduce soil contamination and significantly increases productivity.
fertilization.Usually castor oil is the second crop after the fertilized steam.If planting castor beans produced by unfertilized predecessor, under the early autumn plowing should make a mixture of organic and mineral fertilizers in doses about: manure - 10-15 t / ha of superphosphate - 2.0-2.5 t / ha, ammonium sulfate- 1.0-1.5 t / ha and potassium salt - 1.0-1.5 t / ha.
During the summer should produce two feeding local fertilizers in the form of slurry, poultry manure and ashes.In the absence of local fertilizers make ammonium nitrate or ammonium sulfate, superphosphate and potassium salt.In this first dressing after thinning should be castor beans, and the second at the beginning of flowering.Fertilizer should be applied at the rate of: ammonium nitrate - 0.8-1.5 t / ha of superphosphate - 1-2 kg / ha, the potassium salt or potassium chloride - 0.7-1.0 t / ha.
reproduction.Castor propagated by sowing seeds directly into the ground.Large seeds harvested from the central brushes give the best results both in yield and in its quality.The most advisable to sow the castor-oil plant when the soil temperature at a depth of 10 cm up to 8-10 ° C.
best way sowing is square-cluster held drill NL-6, which has a special device for the precise placement of slots at area food 70x70 sm. Norma ordinal planting at wide inter-rows for small seeded varieties is 35-40 kg / ha, and for big seeds- 50-60 kg / ha.When the seedlings produce mechanical cutting flowers with a slot width of 50-60 cm and a length of 20 cm in the bouquet. The bouquet is left for two or three plants.When the cluster method of sowing, as well as in manual thinning seeding rate for small seeds is 15-20 kg / ha, and for large - 25-30 kg / ha.
depth hurt the seeds in moist and heavy-textured soil ranges from 6-10 cm, and in light soils and dry spring embedment depth should bp-10-12 cm.
Care plantations.For amicable shoots heavy harrow harrowed field in one or two tracks across the rows of crop.Then systematically loosened aisle
cultivators with simultaneous weeding around the plants.With the advent of the second true leaf thinning produce.To improve the yield and accelerate the ripening seeds is recommended topping tops of the main stem and lateral branches (chasing) in the stage of the emergence of these four or five leaflets.This technique increases the castor harvest to 1-3 t / ha.
Additional castor pollination also increases productivity.This technique consists in transferring pollen from one plant to another during flowering by shaking off the pollen from one plant inflorescence inflorescence on the other, or in the transfer of pollen by means of soft fur mittens.
Harvesting.Browning and cracking at the bottom of the boxes indicate brush seed maturation.Therefore, as soon as the boxes browned, should immediately proceed to the cleaning in order to avoid shedding seeds.The first to ripen boxes in the central hands.Cleaning is not fully ripened seed is the reason for the decline of their oil content and oil quality leads to a reduction, which becomes unsuitable for use in the aviation industry.Due to non-simultaneous ripening seeds of cleaning produce selectively in two to four reception.However, up to 80% of the crop falls on the first central cleaning brushes.This part of the plant is the most valuable, and should thresh separately.Varieties with castor nerastreskivayuschimisya boxes are cleaned with special harvesters.Humidity of seeds to be stored must not exceed 8.10%.
Growing seeds.For seed plantations allocate special areas in which carried high agricultural techniques or special lay the seed plots.Seed plot inoculated selective seeds taken from the central brush.These seeds are passed through a winnower in a strong wind, to select the most cereal-tions.Then the water is heated to a temperature of 40-45 ° C, was poured into the barrel and to pour the seeds into three to four hours.The seeds sink to the bottom, after three or four hours to the seed sown land, and the seeds, surfaced on at
surface, is used as a commodity.During the growing season on the seed section varietal spend weeding and removing all atypical for this cultivar.Before cleaning seed plots select the best central brush, the seeds of which are used for planting next year.
yield of castor seeds on average is about 10-12 kg / ha, and in the best farms in the Ukraine and the North Caucasus receive yields of 20-25 t / ha.