Useful and therapeutic properties of marjoram garden
Synonym: kitchen herb.
description.Yasnotkovyh herb of the family (Lamiaceae) in height 30-50 cm. Stem branched, upright, four-sided, covered with soft hairs.The leaves are opposite, grayish puberulent, narrowed into petiole, oblong, oval, smooth-edged, 1.5-3.0 cm in length and a width of about 1.0 cm. The flowers are irregular, small, bisexual, with a fall off a white or reddish rim bilabiate collectedin dense false ear.Fruit dry, consisting of four small-seeded nutlets.
Blossoms in July-August.The seeds are very small.Weight of 1000 seeds - 0.1-0.2 g
medicinal raw materials: grass.
Biological features.Marjoram is cultivated in Europe as an annual plant, since it can not withstand even weak frosts to 5-7 ° C.
Distribution.In the wild form is found in Central Asia and North Africa, where it grows as a perennial, as well as in some countries of southern Europe.Under the conditions of the subtropics Marjoram reaches 0.8-1.0 m in height.
now cultivated in many countries of Asia, Africa and Europe (Fr
CIS marjoram is cultivated in the Krasnodar region, Central Asia, the Caucasus and the southern regions of Ukraine in small areas.
chemical composition.The yield of essential oils from fresh grass averages 0.3-0.5%, and dry out - 2.3%.The composition of essential oils include: marjoram acid ter-pinene, terpineol, in the grass contains tannin, pectin and pentosans.
Application.Marjoram has a very wide application: with inflorescences leaves are used in cooking as a seasoning for meat soups, salads and side dishes, fish and meat dishes;in the canning industry is used for pickling cucumbers and tomatoes, in alcoholic beverage and perfume industries;in sausage and bread production.With the aim of drug recommended for the treatment of respiratory and digestive organs as a substitute for oregano in folk medicine - for insomnia.Essential oil of oregano is used to make spice extracts and liqueurs.In pripasechnyh crops he
and This is used as a honey plant in late summer and early autumn .
Agrotehnika growing.Site selection.Marjoram grows well in fertile, loose, sandy-loam and loamy soils.Under it should be given the southern slopes, illuminated by the sun and protected from cold north winds.The best precursor of marjoram is steam and winter, reaching a couple of fertilizer.
Tillage.Soil preparation is carried out according to the system autumn plowing.Plowing on plowing is carried out in late August and September at a depth of 20 cm. In early spring, shortly after the close of the soil moisture cultured with simultaneous harrowing, and until the landing field contained in the loose and clean of weeds.Before the planting soil is cultivated again, harrowed and ukatyvayut light roller.
fertilization.By plowing should be made of 25-30 t / ha of compost, 3-4 t / ha of superphosphate and 1.0-1.5 t / ha of potassium salt, and in the spring further 1.5-2.0 t / ha of ammonium nitrate.During the summer feeding requires two of the local or fertilizers.
reproduction.Marjoram propagated by growing seedlings in greenhouses early, sowing seeds directly into the soil (in the southern regions), by dividing the bushes in the green part and by grafting.
In most cases, marjoram grown seedling method with preliminary sparring.When the seedlings reach a height of 5-6 cm, it planted in a permanent place with row widths of 30 cm and the distance between plants in a row 20 cm.
for breeding marjoram cuttings planted a small amount of seeds in the greenhouse (on the shelves) or in greenhouses.When the plants have three pairs of leaves are cut off from it phasically young cuttings (top) and are planted in the same place (on shelves or in greenhouses).After two weeks of the initial plant cuttings again.Then, re-plant cuttings obtained from the first propagation, etc.Thus, the shortage of seeds from 16 '20 marjoram can be propagated in the spring and get the amount needed to plant an area of about 1 ga.-
sowing seeds directly into the soil in early spring produce, as soon as the soil warms up enough and proydehduring frosts.Since the seeds marjoram small, top, layer of soil tions must be carefully grind to a state of fine lumpy structure.The seeds are buried to a depth of 0.5-1.0 cm. For the blind Sharovka to seeds marjoram mixed buckwheat seeds or mustard as Lighthouse plants.After sowing the aisle mulch of compost, since the sealing of shallow topsoil dries quickly, and seeds marjoram can not give seedlings.The seeding rate in the open ground is 4-5 kg / ha and 100 m2 greenhouse planting - 2-4 of
Care plantations.Plantation marjoram should be maintained in the loose and clean of weeds.This requires frequent Sharovka row spacing and simultaneous weeding in rows (at least four or five times during the summer).
Harvesting.Marjoram is harvested in August, at the beginning of flowering in good weather.The plants are cut at a height of 5-7 cm above the soil level mowers, and small areas of scythes or sickles.If during the summer you need to spend two mowings, then during the first mowing plants are cut at a height of 10-15 cm (at this level will have time to cut marjoram tillered and give a new crop grows back quickly and after a month and a half).
drying.Marjoram dried in attics, under a tin roof with good ventilation, spreading a thin layer.After drying slightly marjoram threshed in order to separate the leaves from the stems.Then the resulting mass is sieved through a sieve or rare thick sieve for separation of dust, sand and other impurities.
Packaging.Raw marjoram packed in boxes in such a way that it does not fray.
Storage.Marjoram is stored in a dry and dark place on the shelves or pedestals.
At high agronomic techniques and the favorable climatic conditions it is possible to obtain the dry weight of the harvest at two cut system an average of about 8-10 kg / ha.
Quality requirements.Marjoram Raw materials must comply with the requirements of OST 4328.
Growing seeds.In our climatic conditions marjoram seeds are almost mature.However, if grown
vzt marjoram by forcing in greenhouses early, it gives a slight yield of mature seeds.For a large number of mature seeds is necessary to introduce fertilizer in the form of a 5% solution of potassium phosphate in an amount of 5.4 cm3 per 1 kg of soil in pots.Adding the calcium nitrate Ca (N03) 2 delays ripening seeds.
To speed up the ripening seeds marjoram recommended sites designated for this culture, to defend the greenhouse frames, setting them in the late summer upon the occurrence of cold nights.