Useful and therapeutic properties of madder dye
Synonyms: madder, madder Chereshkovaya.
description. Madder dyeing - a perennial herb of the family Rubiaceae (Ru-biaceae) in height and 130 cm Rhizome horizontal, brown, many-headed, with a branched root..The stem is quadrangular, prickly-gritty, silnovetvyaschy Xia, with backward curved spines.Leaves broadly, ringed at the base tapering into a short petiole, on the edges and bottom of the woolly, prickly, pointy, hard.The flowers are small, are collected in few-flowered axillary semiumbels.Corollas spike, yellowish-green, quinquepartite.Fruit - kostochkoob different, black berry.Weight of 1000 seeds - 25-30 g Flowering in June-July;fruits ripen in August and September.
medicinal raw materials: the rhizomes.
Biological features.Madder dyeing - heat and water-loving plant.Its young shoots are affected by late spring frosts.Already in the first year of life madder fruits.On the second and third year of fruiting is complete.
locus.It grows on the banks of rivers, irrigation canals, among the thickets
Distribution.Madder dyeing grows wild in southern Europe, Central Asia and the Caucasus.In southern Ukraine, it is grown as a medicinal plant.It is found in the wild as a kind of madder edge
strong - Georgian Madder - Rubia tinctorum Var.iberica D. St.- R. iberica (Fish, ex D. C. Koch.), which is the propagation, Nena in the Caucasus and Crimea.It is like Marin dye and is still used in folk medicine as a substitute for it.This is a perennial herbaceous plant with crawling, denote woody rootstock, extending from the upper parts of the taproot.
chemical composition.The rhizomes and roots of the plant contain hydroxyanthraquinones, oksimetilantrahinony and their derivatives (5-7,7%) - ruberitrinovuyu acid rubiadin-glucoside, rubiadin, lutsidin, purpurin, ksantopurpurin, psevdopurpurin, galiozin, iberitsin and free Alizarin.Furthermore, rhizomes and roots have organic acids (citric, malic, tartaric, etc.), Sugar (15%), pectin and calcium and potassium salts.
Application.A special feature of herbal medicines madder is their ability to dissolve and contribute to the rapid excretion of phosphate, oxalate and urate.However, they possess diuretic, choleretic, astringent and antispasmodic properties.Indications for use of madder are nephrolithiasis, inflammatory diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, jaundice, constipation, nefropielit, cystitis, nocturia, arthritis and gout.There is evidence of the successful use of madder dye as an additional tool in the treatment of bone tuberculosis, rickets and bone decay.In domestic and foreign folk medicine, infusion of rhizomes used in inflammation of the spleen, delayed menstruation, as a diuretic and laxative.The rhizome mixed with honey drink with jaundice and loss of memory.Uses the madder roots in homeopathy.Of the finished pharmaceutical products using dry extract madder dye and complex preparation Cystenalum.Preparations madder dye contraindicated in acute and chronic glomerular nephritis, nephrolithiasis with renal dysfunction and gastric ulcer.Overdose of drugs madder can cause pain and aggravation of chronic urological diseases.In the chemical industry from the roots of the madder dye manufacture various dyes - from pink to purple color
(rubianin, rubiagin, rubiflavin, verotin, rubfe-ttsya, etc.).
Agrotehnika growing.Site selection.Mar-Sy plan in crop rotations with perennial crops: perennial fodder and medicines, where it mo-yaset grow at least 3-4 years.It can be used to sow adress and land.Best predecessors - engaged couples, cereals, walking along a busy couple and tilled or early vegetable crops.
Tillage.Under the culture of madder dye the soil is prepared in the system fall plowing to a depth of 30 cm, because the roots lie in the topsoil of 35 cm. On soils that have little topsoil, main plowing is carried out to the full depth before sowing field harrowed, and then cultured ona depth of 6-8 cm and harrowed again.When planting the rhizomes cultivation is carried out to a depth of at least 8-10 cm.
fertilization.Under madder like demanding to the soil culture should make a sufficient amount of fertilizer.Organic fertilizers in the form of humus or compost is made directly under the madder or by its predecessors in the amount of 20 t / ha.Furthermore, under the main plowing fertilizer at the rate of nitrogen - 45, phosphorus - potassium and 60 - 60 kg / ha.
reproduction.Sow seeds madder dye directly into the soil.Do it early in the spring with the inter-row spacing 60 or 45 cm;seeding rate - 15-20 kg / ha, the depth of embedding the seed - 4-5 cm, use the seeds for sowing the last collection, for others do not give amicable shoots due to the partial loss of germination during storage..Before sowing seeds is recommended to treat granozanom (2 g per 1 kg of seeds) or mixture AB (3 g per 1 kg of seeds).
can propagate madder and rhizomes are dug in the old plantations.Thrown rhizomes in early spring on the field Uncheck segments 6-8 cm long.The rhizomes are placed in furrows at a depth of 8-10 cm at a distance of 10-15 cm.
Care plantations.For crops the first year of life immediately after emergence produces Sharovka, weed out the weeds and loosen aisle 3-4 on the pro
attraction summer.On plantations in the fall transition delete?the remains of plants, produce ridging, and in winter - snow protection.
Harvesting.Rhizomes are harvested at 2-3 year of life in late autumn or early spring before the beginning of regrowth shoots.For the convenience of the aerial parts of the pre-Mow and freed from their field.After that, the roots and rhizomes podpahivayut moldboard plows or beet harvesters, clear of the ground and above-ground mass and washed in special washing drums.
drying the roots and rhizomes produced in the firing kilns at a temperature of 50 "C, and if not -. Attics, which are well ventilated Vintage air-dry weight of the raw materials (rhizomes and roots), on average there are about 10-12 kg / hatwo-, three-year plantations.
Packaging. packed in bales of 50 kg.
storage. in a dry, ventilated place packed. bales stacked in piles on shelves or podtovarnikah.
quality requirements. Raw material must meet the requirements of the StatePharmacopoeia XI (FS-76, with. 363-369).
Growing seeds. For seed plantations withdrawn best for growth of grass plots. After ripening seeds are harvested, dried, sorted, bringing to sowing conditions.