Useful and therapeutic properties of Digitalis purpurea
Synonyms: red foxglove, digitalis, a thimble.In nature, there are about 35 species of foxglove (Family figwort - Scrophulariaceae).
In medicine is widely used the following types: ladyfingers, n.grandiflora (D. grandi-flora Mill.), n.Rusty (D. fer-ruginea L.), n.woolly (D. lanata Ehrh.), n.ciliated (D. ciliata Trautv.).
description.Digitalis purpurea - biennial herb with erect stem height from 50 cm to 1.5 m lower basal leaves - long-winged petioles, cauline - ovate-oblong, with short petioles and serrated edges.;upper - sessile, small.The outer side of the plate by leaflets, dark green, and the lower pubescent, gray-felted.The length of the rosette and lower stem leaves - 12-25 cm, and width -. 4-10 cm flowers are large, drooping, on short stalks, forming a one-sided inflorescence - brush length 40-90 cm Corolla purple, two-lipped, wrong, in the form.thimble (hence the name of the plant), purple outside, white inside with a lot of purple spots.Calyx green, hairy, neopadayuschaya.Stamens four upper two
Biological features.Digitalis purpurea - moisture- and heat-loving culture, which often freezes in our conditions.Its seeds in 2-3 years lose their germination.In the culture grown as dvuhletnik, but under favorable conditions, it can grow in the third year.
seeds begin to germinate at 5-6 "C. The optimum germination temperature -. 20-30 ° C. Seedlings are small, so it's easy jammed weed culture is very sensitive to soil moisture during the germination and initial development Lack of moisture at this time..may, at
lead to the complete destruction of seedlings Adult plants enough drought-resistant
medicinal raw materials:.. leaves
locus is growing in light mountainous areas on the slopes of mountains and hills among the bushes
Distribution occurs primarily in the areas....Western Europe (in the east - to the Alps and the Elbe River basin)., in the southern part of the Scandinavian Peninsula, the isolation in the Carpathians is grown in many countries of Western Europe, it is cultivated in Kiev, Poltava, Zhytomyr regions farther north ladyfingers often freezes in the absence of snow..cover it freezes in the conditions of Ukraine.
chemical composition.Digitalis leaves contain cardiac glycosides (purple reaglikozidy A and B, which are in the process of drying and storage enzymatically converted respectively digitoxin and gitoksin), steroid saponins (digitonin, digonin, gitonin), flavonoids (luteolin-7-glycoside), choline,organic acids and other compounds.
Application.Active ingredients of digitalis glycosides are purple heart action.The most active role belongs to the therapeutic and digitoxin gitoksinu.A feature of the purple digitalis glycosides (to the same extent this also applies to other types of digitalis) is their ability to enhance the contraction of the heart muscle, while reducing their numbers, which favors, on the one hand, the best holiday of the heart, and on the other - more of his blood supply.This causes an increase in blood volume which is ejected into the aorta, blood flow acceleration, reduction in venous pressure.Due to normalize hemodynamic and renal vascular expansion, significantly increased urination, which leads to the disappearance or reduction of edema.According to physics-to-chemical characteristics of digitalis glycosides belong to the group of lipophilic glycosides.They are well absorbed and are not destroyed in the gastrointestinal tract, quickly react with the plasma proteins are effective when taken orally (in case of impossibility of introducing into the stomach, for example, vomiting, administered rectally).The action of digitalis glycosides starts
occur within 2-4 hours, reaches a maximum at 8-12 hours, and stops completely after 14-21 days.Violation of renal excretory function little effect on the excretion of glycosides, because they stand out in the urine in small amounts.After the intestinal absorption of a significant amount to the liver and excreted in the bile, and then reabsorbed in the gastrointestinal tract.The simultaneous presence of the above properties gives the full right to be called digitalis "queen of heart means."Indications for drugs is chronic heart failure of different origin, paroxysmal tachycardia.It should be remembered that digitalis preparations have cumulative toxic properties and, therefore, they should be taken only on prescription.
Agrotehnika growing.Site selection.Under Digitalis purpurea assign areas that are protected from the cold north-easterly winds.The most suitable are the fertile soil structure, light, loam, sandy loam, chernozem type, but not sour.The best precursors are considered in the rotation fallow or row crops and winter crops, which are fertilized by a couple, as well as annual grasses grown for hay.
soil treatment.When the foxglove is sown after winter, then immediately after collection luschat stubble.Plowing on plowing is carried out early in the autumn plow with coulters at a depth of 22-27 cm. After the plow tilled immediately after harvesting.
fertilization produce autumn under plowing rate of 30-40 t / ha pereprelogo good humus.If compost is not enough added thereto superphosphate and potassium salt (20-25 t / ha of humus, 2-2.5 kg / ha of superphosphate, 1-1.5 kg / ha of potassium salt).Nitrogen fertilizer should be applied in spring presowing and preplant tillage (1.5-2 kg / ha).
reproduction.Digitalis can be propagated by both seeds and seedlings (in the northern regions).Seeding rate - 5-7 kg / ha, while podzimny sowing - 20% more.Podzimny seeding produced before the onset of frosts without embedding seeds.However, the best result gives the wound-nevesenny sowing.When square-cluster method, the rate you
sowing 3-4 kg / ha with row spacing - 60 cm. For the pre-marked square-hill planting the field - 60 x60 cm Distillation produce seedlings by sowing seeds in greenhouses in early spring, followed by a transfer.seedlings in the soil to the plant until frost 3-4 leaf appeared.
Care plantations consists of repeated loosening between the rows, weeding the weeds, fertilizer application in the form of dressing.If the crop is too thick, you need to thin out the plants partly in rows, leaving a distance of 20 cm between them. As the seedlings emerge slowly and they are very small, the first loosening of row spacing must be done "blindly".Caring for the plantation for the second year consists of cleaning plants from old leaves, making nitrogen-phosphorus fertilizer in the form of fertilizing while fluffing rows.
Harvesting.The leaves of the first year is usually collected twice: in late summer, when they reach the standard length of 15-25 cm, and in the autumn.the second year of cultivation The leaves are harvested in early bloom, and after reaching a standard-sized leaves.To increase the yield on two-year leaf stalks plantations stepson.The average yield of dry leaves is 7-11 t / ha, although it is possible to collect and 15-18 kg / ha.
drying.After collecting the leaves have to be dried immediately.In good sunny weather can be dried in attics, under a tin roof, and in cloudy - to fire kilns at a temperature of 40-60 ° C.
Packaging.Leaves are packed into bales of 50 kg.
Storage.Given that the plant is poisonous, raw materials should be stored indoors.
Quality requirements.Raw materials must meet the requirements of the State Pharmacopoeia XI (FS-14, pp. 253-254).
Biological Activity 1, the raw material should be 50-66 10,3-12,6 ICE or CUD.
Growing seeds.For the cultivation of seeds of Digitalis purpurea allocate separate areas with good herbage plantations technical digitalis or lay special seed plots against the background of high farming.At such sites, leaves are harvested only once and seeds - when browning middle tier of boxes and full
boll maturation of the lower tier.Threshed seeds grind with adjusted fan to avoid deflation.Seeds are purified through a series of sieves, and then sorted.The yield of this plant is an average of 0.5-1.5 t / ha.