Useful and therapeutic properties of medicinal marigold
Synonyms: marigolds , naugadki, krokis, core pharmaceutical nail, Calendula officinalis.
description.An annual herb of the family Asteraceae (Asteraceae) 30-60 cm tall. The root branching, rod.Stem round, branched, top golden-pubescent, erect.The leaves are oblong, regular, lower - petiolate, upper - sessile.Flowers SWAT
us in apical baskets, orange or orange-red.Fruit - achene different sizes.Weight of 1000 seeds - 8-10 of flowers from June until late autumn.The fruits ripen in July and August.
medicinal raw materials: flower baskets.
Biological features.Marigold can be grown on a variety of soils as a fairly undemanding plant that is easily propagated by self-seeding and growing like a weed.In the culture grown marigold terry form, which, depending on the growth conditions and the size of the inoculum, the number of double flowers ranges from 12 to 39%.Reproduction seed.Shoots appear on day 6-12 after inoculation.Phase budding occurs within 20-25 days after emergence, beginning of flowering - at
locus. It grows in moist open sunny places.
Distribution. Marigold drugs originate from Central and South Europe. On the territory of Ukraine of their breedin gardens and vegetable gardens as an ornamental plant. For medicinal needs grown in specialized farms.
chemical composition. marigold flowers contain about 3% of carotenoids, flavonoids, essential oil (about 0.02%), saponins, a bitter substance Kalenda, resinous (up to 3.44%), and tannins, mucilage (to 2.5%), inulin, organic acids, phytosterols, enzymes, vitamin C, alkaloids and triterpendioly.
Application. marigold known therapeutic properties still XII century, and hasat the end of the XVI century formulations of them have been widely used in many diseases.
Marigold drugs have anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, wound healing, antispasmodic and lo-dative properties, increase metabolic function of the liver (increased secretory and excretory function decreases bilirubin concentration and cholesterol in bile).Marigold broad therapeutic activity due to the presence of a considerable number of carotenoids, flavonoids and salicylic acids, vitamins and other compounds.Especially widely used for topical treatment of nails.If the skin cracks and herpes sores in the stage of eruption and the formation of bubbles using a 10% infusion of flower baskets on vegetable oil, and in acne and infectious crack in the corners of the mouth - a 20% tincture.Breeding infusion (1 h. Spoon of tincture in a glass of boiled water) treated ulcers shin otrubevid-tion zoster and oily seborrhea person, eczema, pustular rash on the skin and frostbite, rinse the mouth and throat (every 1.5-2 hours)with aphthous stomatitis, gingivitis, Pioro, inflammatory and degenerative forms of periodontitis, tonsillitis and sore throat, douche in cervical erosion and Trichomonas coleitis make trays and microclysters (before and after discharge) with proctitis, pas raproktite and anal fissures, compresses andbath for the eyes with blepharitis, conjunctivitis and barley (in ophthalmic practice using double-strength solution - 1 tsp of tincture of 0.5 cups of boiling water.).To rinse the mouth and throat cloths, micro-enemas and douches can be used, and 10-20% aqueous solution of flower baskets (boiled water in a ratio of 1 bred for irrigation infusion: 5).In the treatment of angina drugs marigold is used as a standalone tool or in conjunction with antibiotics and sulfonamides.Tera
apeutic effect in the topical treatment of leg ulcers, skin cracks and pustular rash on the skin can significantly enhance the simultaneous adoption of the inside of tincture or infusion of marigold.Freckles on the face and hands of the everyday output half-board (morning and evening) greasing affected sites juice from fresh leaves of marigolds, mixed equally with the juice of a lemon, berries currants and almond oil.From ready-made pharmaceutical products, other than specified above infusions, local procedures used kariofilenovuyu ointment (anti-inflammatory, which helps stop the itching and reduce infiltration with dermatitis, eczema, trophic ulcers) and calendula ointment.In a number of diseases carried peroral-term treatment nails.The use of nails is recommended for gastritis, gastric ulcer and duodenal ulcers, colitis, enterocolitis, liver disease, biliary tract.Positive therapeutic effect was observed when using marigold mixed with chamomile and yarrow.With the success of nails used in cardiovascular diseases, which are accompanied by palpitations, shortness of breath and edema.In obstetrics and gynecology infusion or tincture of marigold are inside the continuous vomiting in pregnancy (drink before meals for 2-3 weeks), dismeno-Ray (drink 3 times a day for 5-7 days before menstruation), with hypertension andinsomnia during menopause.In folk medicine, in addition to all the above cases, infusion and tincture of marigold flower baskets are inside when AvtoZIL, bronchitis, scrofula, rickets, jaundice, diseases of the bladder (the formation of stones and sand) and the spleen, nervous fever and dizziness.Of finished drugs consumed pills kaferid proposed for the treatment of anemia and kaleflon - anti-inflammatory agent that stimulates repair processes in gastric ulcer and duodenal ulcer and chronic gastritis.It is widely used in homeopathy and calendula.
Agrotehnika growing.Site selection.Marigold - undemanding plant.But the best crops they give to well-lit, fairly moist soils.The best precursors for marigolds can be zer
new, legumes, and row crops.Marigold can be grown for a long time in one place, so they can be placed on nearby sites.
Tillage.Basically, plowing must be done as early as possible to a depth of 22-25 cm, as well as for other row crops.
fertilization.To ensure a long flowering under the nails is recommended to apply a sufficient amount of fertilizer: for basic autumn plowing - 30-40 t / ha of compost or a mixture of organic and mineral fertilizers in the calculation of 20-30 t / ha of compost, 3-4 t / ha of superphosphate n 1-1.5 kg / ha of ammonium nitrate.If there is no compost should make fertilizer at the rate of 6 t / ha of superphosphate, 1.5-2 kg / ha ammonium nitrate and 1 kg / ha of potassium salt.
reproduction.Marigold multiply sowing of the seed directly into the soil, the best period of sowing - early spring (at the same time with the sowing of early spring crops).North producing conventional grain seeders with row spacing of 60 cm;seeding rate -. 10-12 kg / ha, the depth of embedding of 2-3 cm can sow and a belt - double-row planting method with the distance between the strips 60 cm and between rows - 15cm Care
plantations..After emergence loosen aisle and weed weeds in the rows.This treatment is repeated 2-3 times in the first half of the summer before the closing of rows, when you can carry out the processing of row spacing.For more plentiful and prolonged flowering is recommended 1-2 times over the summer to feed crops of organic and mineral fertilizers.
harvest.Due to the fact that the marigold bloom for a long time and not simultaneously collecting inflorescences throughout the growing season produce 15-20 times.The inflorescences are cut near the base by hand in the opening phase of 2-4 laps tubular flowers in nemahrovyh forms and the disclosure of a half reed flowers in terry.The first flowering period passes quickly, so the collection is repeated every 2-3 days, and then - after 4-5 days and less.With good farming practices yield of air-dry inflorescences up to 18 t / ha.
drying is carried out immediately after harvest in the closed currents in the dryer with good ventilation.The inflorescence is spread in a thin layer on the frames with stretched burlap, on racks,
during drying, the grass should be a little stir.The firing dryer temperature should not exceed 45 ° C.
Packaging.Packed in plywood boxes, lined inside with paper, 20 kg.
Storage.In a well-ventilated area.
Quality requirements.Raw materials must meet the requirements of the State Pharmacopoeia XI (FS-5, pp. 237-238).
Growing seeds.Seed lots are laying the seeds of elite seed or first reproduction.The size of the seed portion of 3-5% of commercial plantations.The spatial isolation of at least 50 m. On the seed plots from the beginning of flowering, to prevent cross-pollination, remove all plants with no orange-red flowers, as well as with small baskets.
Seeds ripen asynchronously, so the first 2-3 collection is carried out selectively by hand when they become brown.Last clean grain harvesters.The collected seeds scatter a layer of 3-5 cm on the canvas to dry, and then purified on zernooochistitelnyh machines.The yield of seeds of 4-6 quintals per 1 hectare.