Useful and therapeutic properties of plantain
Synonyms: pridorozhnik, poreznik, companion, chirya grass.
description.A perennial herb of the family plantaginaceae (Plantaginaceae) with a rosette of basal leaves with one or more peduncles up to 45 cm. Rhizome thick, short, with a plurality of thin-shnu rovidnyh roots.Leaves radical, compact, purpose-nokraynie or slightly toothed, with 5-9 longitudinal veins, broadly.Inflorescence - a long dense cylindrical spike, blooms in June - September.Fruit - egg-shaped capsule polyspermous, small seeds.Weight of 1000 seeds - 0,14-0,25 g
Medicinal raw: the leaves and seeds.
Biological features.Plantain has a fairly extended flowering period - about 4 months.Unpretentious in different conditions.Abundantly fruiting: one plant can produce up to 60,000 seeds.
locus.It grows in floodplain meadows, fields, forests, the roads, footpaths, gardens, vegetable gardens, near dwellings.
Distribution.Under natural conditions in Ukraine is found everywhere.Widely cultivated in the culture.
chemical composition.The leav
Application.Herbal medicines from the leaves of the plantain have multifaceted therapeutic effect: sekretoliticheskoe, anti-inflammatory, Analgesic, hemostatic, wound healing, bacteriostats-cal, sedative (even sleeping pills), anti-hypertensive and anti-allergic.A decoction of the leaves of the plantain is prescribed for bronchitis, pulmonary tuberculosis, whooping cough and other diseases of the respiratory organs, which are accompanied by the release of dense secrets for catarrh of the stomach with insufficient acidity, acute gastrointestinal diseases (gastritis, enteritis, enterocolitis), acute and chronic colitis, chronicnephritis and peptic ulcer disease.Of the finished pharmaceutical products using the juice of plantain and plan-taglyutsid.Plantaglyutsid used as an antispasmodic and anti-inflammatory agent in hypoacid gastritis, gastric ulcer and duodenal ulcer with normal and lack of acidity (in exacerbation and relapse prevention).Duration of treatment during an exacerbation - 3-4 weeks.Plantaglyutsid and decoction of leaves of plantain are contraindicated in hyper-tsidnyh gastritis and gastric ulcer with high acidity.Plantain leaves are part of the thoracic teas.
In folk medicine, a decoction or infusion of plantain leaves is drunk as a blood-purifying agent from urticaria, in scurvy, fever and atherosclerosis, in the case of heartburn, belching, bloating, diarrhea and hemorrhoids, inflammation of the bladder, from bed-wetting and swelling,gastric cancer, lung, malignant ulcers of skin and elephantiasis.Seeds of Plantago major has enveloping, soothing and anti-inflammatory properties.Use it just like psyllium seeds bloshnogo.In addition, a large decoction psyllium drink 1 tablespoon 3 times a day for 1-2 months in female infertility on the basis of hormonal disorders and diabetes.
widely used and plantain as an external agent.Fresh leaves applied to boils, sores, ulcers, burns, abrasions, cuts and abscesses.Juice crushed leaves of plantain treat dermatitis caused by insect bites.The powder of the leaves are used as
powder for wounds (hemostatic effect) and for the production of ointments, which is an effective tool for the treatment of pustular skin diseases.Decoction of leaves washed the wounds and sores, mouth rinse in inflammation of the gums, making lotions for eye inflammation and dermatitis.Essence of the fresh plant is used in homeopathy.
Agrotehnika growing.Site selection.Since plantain can grow in one place for up to 5 years, it is placed on the plantations with perennial herbs fields.Under it sometimes withdrawn nearby sites.You can not grow in heavy soils, intermittent.The best are the forerunners of winter crops, row crops and legumes under which to make fertilizer.
Tillage.The main autumn plowing produce a depth of 25-27 cm after the liberation of the field from its predecessors.In early spring harrowed soil to retain moisture.Sowing cultivation produce a depth of 5 cm, followed by harrowing.As psyllium seeds are very small, before sowing them to better embedding ukatyvayut field.
fertilization.If a precursor to make organic fertilizers under the main autumn plowing is recommended to apply a complete fertilizer at the rate of 50-70 kg / ha of active ingredient.
reproduction.Waybread propagated by seeds.It can be sown in three terms: in early spring, late summer and autumn.Spring is best to sow stratified, and in the summer and before winter - dry seeds.Sowing produce vegetable planter with a width between rows to clean sites 27.5-30 cm, overgrown with weeds - 45-60 cm Seeding rate -. 6 kg / ha of dry and 4 kg / ha stratified, embedding depth - up to 1 cm.Under winter sow without embedding.
Care plantations.Basic care is to systematically loosening of inter-row weeding and the weeds in the rows.The first treatment is carried out immediately after emergence.On transition plantations in early spring harrowing Remove dead leaves.During the summer it is recommended to fertilize the plant twice, which increases the yield to 25%.
Harvesting.Essential medicines are raw plantain leaves, which are collected twice during the summer: the first time - at the beginning of flowering, the second - for 1.5-2 months before the end of summer to the end of the growing season to grown a new rosette of leaves and plants grew stronger before winter.The leaves are harvested reaper or sickles and immediately sent to the place of processing, where they squeeze the juice.
drying.Leaves dried under cover or in the air dryer, and in wet weather - firing in an oven at 40-50 ° C.The average yield of dry leaves with good care for two mowings of 14-18 kg / ha.
Packaging.Leaves are packed into bales of 50 kg.
Storage.Store raw materials in wooden boxes lined with paper.
Quality requirements.Raw materials must meet the requirements of the State Pharmacopoeia XI (FS-20, pp. 264-267).