Useful and therapeutic properties of the thyroid podofilla
Synonyms: Podophyllum US, the May apple, nogolist.
description.A small perennial herb of the family Berberidaceae (Berberidaceae).Rhizome creeping, long.Stem single, smooth height of 40-50 cm, ending with a large flower and two opposite leaves.On one stalk develops only two, at least three long-petiolate leaves.The record sheet is located above the ground in the form of a shield (hence Podophyllum American and was named the thyroid or schitolistnogo).The leaves are large - up to 30 cm in diameter.Each plant has a flower in white.
Fruit - unilocular berry polyspermous up to 5 cm, ovoid, yellow, sour taste.Berry has 50 pieces of seeds, which are shaped like a pear seeds.Blossoms in May;fruits ripen in mid-August.Weight of 1000 seeds is 15-19 g
medicinal raw materials: the rhizomes.
Biological features.Podophyllum grows well in the shade, in areas protected from the sun.Growth podofilla spring starts at 5-7 ° C, and intense development occurs at 12-15 ° C;in the case of higher temperatures slowing plan
Distribution.In the wild form is found in North Africa, North America (Canada), in the forest-steppe zone of South America, covered with pine forests, and in the Great Lakes area of mixed forests.Therefore, this species grows in the temperate zone of the cold climate in the warm temperate climate zone and the subtropical zone (Florida peninsula).It grows in moist soils rich in humus.Podophyllum import to many countries.podofilla possibility of growing in the CIS has been reported by several authors.Studies indicate the possibility of the introduction of the plants into the culture of the CIS.Especially favorable for the cultivation areas were podofilla Polesie Ukraine.
chemical composition.The rhizomes podofilla contains resinous substances, lignans (derivatives of May apple-lotoksina and peltatina).
Application.From rhizomes and adventitious roots obtained podofilla resin which is one of the strongest laxatives without subsequent fixing properties.In the US, the fruit podofilla thyroid eat.
podofilla drugs are also used in the treatment of malignant tumors, warts, papillomas, skin diseases, in the treatment of diseases of the blood and lymph glands.
Agrotehnika growing.Site selection.The most fertile ground for podofilla are humus, fertile forest with sufficient moisture.The best precursors are considered fallow and row crops.
Tillage.For cultivation podofilla rhizomes autumn plowing of the soil should be carried out in August -. The beginning of September to a depth of 30 cm on the small podzolic soils require plowing the full depth of the plow with coulters and the simultaneous application of manure and lime.
early spring harrowing, close the moisture, and if the soil is heavily compacted during the winter, it is necessary to plow to a depth of 14-16 cm. Before planting roots soil should remain in the vapor state.
fertilization.By plowing should make compost at the rate of 10-15 t / ha;wherein the rhizomes yield is increased by 35-40%.During sowing - planting (spring) is made in the amount of fertilizer: 1.5-2.0 t / ha of superphosphate, 1.0-1.5 kg / ha ammonium nitrate and 0.8-1.0 t / ha of potassium salt.
reproduction.Podophyllum can be propagated in two ways: sowing seeds directly into the ground roots and by dividing into pieces.During the multiplication of seeds of the first true leaves appear in the spring of the second year of life, and the second, six-bladed - in the summer of the second year or third year in the spring.As an exception, rarely appears in some plants and a third sheet.Flowering begins no earlier than the third year after planting.
second most effective method of reproduction - the division of rhizomes into pieces.At the same time with a rhizome can be obtained at 25-30 plants which when planted with well-developed bud in the spring give leaves and flowers in the summer - fruits, and in the autumn of next year ready to root.
Care plantations.Podophyllum require increased soil moisture, air, and suffers from drought.Therefore, during the summer it is necessary to make four or five inter-row hoeing with simultaneous weeding and watering as needed.
Harvesting.The roots are dug in September, immediately cleaned of stalks, wash and cut into pieces the length of 10-15 cm.
drying.Washed and cut the roots podofilla dried in the sun.The dried roots are brown, while on a break - grayish-white.The taste initially sweet, then spicy-bitter.
Packaging.The roots are packed in bales or bags of 20-50 kg.
Storage.Harvested raw materials must be stored in a dry, well ventilated room on the shelves or podtovarnikah.