Useful and therapeutic properties of rose Crimean
Synonyms: French rose, rose Gali.
description.Perennial shrub of the Rosaceae family (Rosaceae) a height of 60-100 cm and more.Stems and branches erect, covered with short bristles and glandular subulate spines, bent down.Leaves long, alternate, imparipinnate, consisting of five - seven leaflets.The leaves are round, ovoid or elliptical, crenate-serrate.The flowers are large, located on long stalks, one-three on the ends of branches.Pyatilistnaya Calyx, corolla Five-petalled, semi-double.Petals purple-red, rarely pink.The fruit of false, malomyasisty, brown-red.Blossoms in May-June.
medicinal raw materials: petals.
Biological features.In winter, the partial otmerzaniya the top of the stems of the Crimean rose reduced harvest her flowers.These experiments showed that the rose bushes are best stored in the winter when hilling their land;with an average yield of flowers from the bush is 630, which is 40% more than the control (without hilling).
Distribution.In the wild form is found in France, Germany,
The culture is cultivated in France, Switzerland, Greece and so on. D. In the CIS cultivated as an oilseed along with damask rose, or Kazanluk (Rosa damascene Mill.) And May rose, or stolistnoy (R. centifolia L.).Particularly widespread damask rose;May rose is cultivated only in France.
chemical composition.The composition of rose oil, which is contained in the flowers of the Crimean rose in an amount of 0.04-0.05%, include: citronellol, geraniol, nerol, eugenol, Qi trawls, linalool, 3-4% sugar, quercetin, bitter substances, fatoil, organic acids, red pigment, wax, and others.
Application.Rose oil and rose water are widely used in perfumery and cosmetics, confectionery, soap and alcoholic beverage industries.
In folk medicine, rose petals are used as subastrigent and protivoponosnoe means.Rose oil is used for sdabrivaniya pharmaceuticals to improve their taste and smell.Moreover, Rose used as an ornamental plant.
Agrotehnika growing.Site selection.The cultivation of roses on the same plot may last 20 years or more.Therefore, areas under the rose should be given outside the rotation, protected from the cold north-easterly winds.The most advisable to plant it in small southern slopes.The best thing a rose is growing on the lime-schebenchatyh alluvial soils of the mountain and river valleys with a powerful layer of topsoil and good aeration, favorable to her as black soil and chestnut soils.
Tillage.By planting roses in the autumn produce plantage plowing to a depth of 60-70 cm. In early spring harrowed area.In case of severe soil compaction plowed to a depth of 18-20 cm and harrowed.
fertilization.In September and October, iebefore plantage plowing, should be made at 35-40 t / ha of manure or compost with the addition of 3 kg / ha of superphosphate, 2 t / ha of ammonium sulfate and 1.0-1.5 t / ha of potash salt.
reproduction.Rose oleifera propagated by cuttings, layering, budding roses on the wild rose bushes and old division into parts.The most effective method of propagation.For this autumn the bushes are selected well-developed
branches and cut them from cuttings 8-12 cm long with two or three axillary buds, which are dropped into the ground to a depth of 6-8 cm, and on top of harboring dung.In spring cuttings begin to sprout, and in the second year they are given small shrubs.
for breeding roses Crimean summer softwood cuttings in the spring they are planted in a cold greenhouse, often sprayed with water, sealed and obscure.For rooting cuttings engraftment and recommended synthetic growth substances: acid IBA and IAA.When processing the cuttings 0.01% strength solution of IAA on callus appears fifth - the seventh day and nearly all cuttings are rooted on day 25 without processing it only formed solution to 15-20 day and rooting takes place on day 35-40.In accordance with GOST 3577-47 planting seedlings should be carried out with standard first- and second-class.
cuttings are thrown in with aisles of 2.5-2.8 m, and the distance between plants in rows of 1.5-1.8 m. The pits dug 40 cm deep and 60 cm wide. Planting is recommended in October or in early spring.Seedlings should be planted at 5-6 cm below the soil level.
addition to the main fertilizer during planting in pits make 1 kg of humus and 30-40 g of ammonium nitrate.To protect plants from frost, their spud the ground layer of 20-25 cm.
Care plantations.Spring open okuchennye bushes in autumn and produce first loosening in rows.After the opening of the bushes and trimming making ammonium nitrate simultaneously with the first cultivation.Aisles cultivators treated to a depth of 10-12 cm. The area under the roses at all times should remain in a loose state and be clean from weeds.With the emergence of flower buds in the year of planting the last to be removed.At six-, seven-year plantations rejuvenation do by cutting the old main branches.Aisle autumn plowed and dug in rows at a depth of 15-18 cm
In October and November make organic fertilizer at the rate of 20 t / ha of manure or 6-8 t / ha poultry manure and mineral fertilizers in the amount of:. 2 t / ha sulphateammonium, 3 t / ha of superphosphate, 1.5 kg / ha of potassium salt.If
organic fertilizers are not available, they are replaced by minerals at the rate of 4 kg / ha of superphosphate, 2 kg / ha of potassium salt and 3 kg / ha of ammonium sulfate.Feeding Roses it is recommended in the first year of fruiting after harvesting the flowers (superphosphate - 1.5 t / ha, ammonium sulfate - 1.0 t / ha and potassium salt - 0.5 t / ha).Fertilizers bring in the groove on both sides of the rows.In the spring pruning removes dry podmerzshie branches and shorten strongly growing branches, which contributes to the duration of flowering and increase flower yields.
Harvesting.The flowers are harvested daily in the early morning during flowering, and in several stages (8-12 times).When collecting a percentage of rose essential rose oil drops in the middle of the day.Immediately after collecting the flowers sent for processing to the essential oil.
Crimean Rose gives a good harvest already in the third year of culture, and the harvest is complete in the fourth year - more than 1,000 flowers of every bush or around 15-24 kg / ha with oil content in them to 0,048-0,050%.