Fennel is useful properties
Synonyms : medicinal dill, fennel pharmacy, dill volotsky.
Umbelliferae (celery) - Apiaceae
The generic name is derived from the Latin word foenurn - hay - in connection with the fragrant, like hay, the smell or because the leaves dry like hay.The generic definition means "common".
Botanical description. Biennial or perennial herb with fusiform taproot.Stem erect, tonkorebristy, branched, 90-200 cm tall. Leaves with membranous sheaths, mnogokratnoperistorassechennye on long thread-like segments.The flowers are small, yellow, collected in complex umbrellas with unequal rays, without involucre and obvertochek.Externally, the plant is very similar to a garden dill, but has a different smell.Fruit - oblong visloplodnik, disintegrating when ripe two poluplodika.
Flowers in July - August.The fruits ripen in September.
collection and drying .Fennel fruit ripen simultaneously.Previously vsёgo ripen fruits on the central umbels, and after 10-20 days in the umbrellas follow orders.Ripe fruits are beginnin
medicinal raw materials. Ready raw material - fennel fruit (Fructus Foeniculi) - consists of a single semi-solid and fruitlets visloplodnikov 4-10 mm long, 1.5-4 mm wide greenish-brown.Semi-fruitlets with five strongly protruding ribs.The taste of sweet and spicy.
GF X admits: moisture not more than 14%;Ash not more than 10%;damaged and immature fruits of fennel not more than 1%;attar impurity less than 1%;Organic impurities are not more than 0.6%;mineral impurities are not more than 0.5%.essential oil content should be not less than 3%.
as attar impurities fruits of fennel are the most common vegetable garden - Anethum graveolens L. This brown flat poluplodika 3-5 mm long with very prominent straw-yellow lateral ribs.The smell of spicy, savory taste.
chemical composition. 3- fennel fruit contains 6.5% of essential oils, which includes up to 60% of anethole, camphor, fenchone isomer (11-12%), methyl chavicol, aldehyde, and anisic acid, a-pinene, a-phellandrene and others. Inthat contains a fatty oil, protein, flavonoids (quercetin, quercetin-3-arabinoside, isorhamnetin; coumarin-umbel liferon).
Biological features .Fennel winters only in the Crimea, the Northern Caucasus and in some southern regions of Ukraine.In the north it is grown as an annual plant, since his crops destroyed by frost in winter.
Distribution. grows wild in South, Central and Western Europe, North Africa, West Asia, Japan, found in the Crimea, the Caucasus and Central Asia.It grows mainly on dry stony slopes, near houses and roads.
The culture is cultivated in Romania, Germany, France, the Czech Republic, Hungary, the Netherlands, Italy, Spain, India, South Africa, the USA and Japan.In Ukraine, cultivated mainly in the Ivano-Frankivsk, Chernivtsi and Chernihiv regions, as well as in Russia - Voronezh region and the Caucasus.
fennel, as well as other plants of the family Umbelliferae, characteristic of southern Europe, especially for the Mediterranean region.He settled down in many non-tropical parts of the world - Japan, Persia, India and the United States.It grows mostly near the sea.In Northern Europe was due to the Romans, and in the US -The first settlers from Europe (in California, he became a weed).Fennel - hardy perennial plant;leaves blue-green, pinnate;collected in umbrellas yellow flowers produce seeds.A related plant derived in Italy - a Florentine fennel, or finocchio (F v dulce..).The fruits of this annual plant with rounded stems are bulbs.They, like the feathery leaves and seeds are eaten raw in salads.
Fennel is known from time immemorial.The Chinese, Indians and Egyptians used it in cooking and medicine.Theophrastus and Pliny preferred its anise and Dioscorides and Hippocrates argued that thanks to him, enhanced flow of breast milk (property highly valued to this day).Pliny thought highly of him as a medicinal herb that helps with eye diseases.The Romans used fennel as a means of promoting digestion.By the end of the meal was served something like a cake, which consisted of fennel seeds, and other plants.(In India, and now the last dish is served 'paan. "- Seeds of various plants, including fennel) The Greeks were convinced that this herb helps to lose weight.And perhaps not without reason: Fennel has to a certain extent diuretic properties.Charlemagne ordered to grow it in their gardens, and the holy Hildegard praised the plant for medicinal properties.The first mention of the essential oil of fennel found in the book "The art of distillation", written by Jerome Branshvigom in 1500 In the XIX-in.doctors breech, Bodarev Bontemps and carried him to the herbs that have firming and carminative action, helps digestion, milk production, onset of menses.More recently, Dr. Leclerc and Mori described the cases where the fennel help with gout, rheumatism and kidney dysfunction (especially with kidney stones).
chemical composition .The fruits of fennel contains about 2-6% and 12-18% essential fatty oils.The main active substance is an essential oil anethole (50-60%).In addition, the essential oil composition comprises:. Benzophenone, pinene, phellandrene, camphene, dipentene, methyl chavicol, etc. After the fruit oil extract of fennel remains to 14-22% protein.The composition of fatty oil of fennel include: petrosellinovaya, oleic acid, linoleic acid and palminovaya.
Agrotechnics cultivation.Site selection.The most favorable for the fertile black soil of fennel and lime-clay loam.Fennel should be cultivated in rotation, since its undisputed culture in one place leads to the development of a large number of pests and diseases.The best precursors are considered winter, reaching for couples fertilized and tilled crops, sown fertilizer.
tillage system maintained by autumn plowing to a depth of 22-25 cm. If fennel sown after row crops, the plowing should be just behind the cleaning predecessor.Early spring plowing harrow, and then carry out sowing cultivation with simultaneous harrowing.
fertilization. Given that fennel is after the fertilized precursor, under the autumn plowing is made only fertilizer (5-6 kg / ha of superphosphate, 2-3 kg / ha of ammonium sulfate and 1.5-2.0 t / ha of potassium salt).
reproduction. Depending on growing conditions Fennel can be sown in three terms: spring, summer and late autumn - before winter.In early spring sowing produce harrowing and sowing cultivation.In the southern parts of fennel are sown in July and August.In this period the plants have time to take root well and satisfactorily carry winter.Podzimny sowing is carried out drills with aisles of 60-70 cm in the late autumn, the seeds do not have time to come up with a fall.Spring seeding rate is 8-10 kg / ha, and podzimnego - 10-12 kg / ha.Seeding depth during the spring planting - 2-3 cm, and at podzimnego - 1 cm distance between plants in rows - 30 cm.
Care plantations.. first loosening produce immediately after emergence, in rows at the same time weed weeds.Shortly thereafter loosened aisle.During the summer, make three or four cultivation and two or three weeding.
If the first year of fennel culture gave ripe fruit after the harvest in late autumn produce deep loosening in order to cover the base of the bushes a few ground and thus protect them from the winter freezing.In early spring the second year of life requires cross harrowing - to destroy the crust, formed in the winter.
On the plantations, where the fruiting in the first year of culture was not, for the winter leaves of fennel stalks for snow retention.
During the summer produce one or two feeding local fertilizer at the rate of 3-4 kg / ha of chicken manure and 2-3 t / ha ash.Of the mineral fertilizers make 1.0-1.2 t / ha of ammonium sulfate, 2.0-2.5 t / ha of superphosphate and 1.0-1.2 t / ha of potash salt.
In areas with more severe winters, which can fennel vymerznut, his roots after cutting stalks and dig trenches or stored in cellars at a temperature of 1-2 ° C, and in the spring of their re-planted in the pre-prepared areas.
Harvesting. Fennel harvested when browning half umbrellas.Like other umbrella plants, seeds, it is easy to crumble, so this plant should be returned in the early morning or late evening dew.
Fennel clean reconstructed combine.The fruits ripen asynchronously (earlier medium umbrellas), so cleaning efficiently carried out in two steps: first, cut off all secondary umbrellas with brownish fruits, and a few days later when browning of fruits on the lateral umbels produce final cleaning.
Fruits threshed on the ordinary threshing machines.Threshed and finally dried by fruit purified by fanning mills and sorting.Harvest seeds on average 12-16 t / ha, in the best farms are making the harvest 20-25 centners / ha.
Growing seeds. Agrotechnics cultivation of fennel seeds is basically the same as cumin.
Medicinal raw materials are the fruits and grass.Fruits harvested as maturation, dried and pulverized.Store raw materials in closed banks.Shelf life 2 years.
The seeds of dill contain essential oil consisting of a mixture of different terpenes: with Carbon, felandren, d-limonene, dallapion.In grass plants also contain essential oils, but its composition is somewhat different.In addition to these terpenes, essential oil components of the seed, it is found to terpinene, dipentene, proazulen.Fresh grass in addition to essential oil contains vitamin C, carotene and kamferol.
Application .Fennel seeds are used with the aim of drug as a remedy for coughs and as a laxative, promotes better digestion.They are sometimes prescribed for gallstone and kidney stone disease.The alcoholic beverage industry they are used in the manufacture of liquors, liqueurs and absinthes.In the perfume industry of fennel seeds get anethole for dental powders, toilet water and so on. N. In addition, fennel is used in soap production and veterinary medicine.Fennel leaves are used in cooking as a spice, as a salad garnish and seasoning for various dishes.Seeds and oil used in the manufacture of confectionery products, wines, pickles, tea, drinks, for fermented cabbage, pickling cucumbers, tomatoes and so on. N.
established that dill grass infusion intravenous lowers blood pressure, dilates blood vessels, stimulates the activity of the weary heartIt relaxes the gut, reducing its motility and increasing urine output.dill herb stimulates appetite, has an antibacterial effect, increases the body's resistance.
In scientific medicine fennel fruits are used as a hypotensive, sedative, antispasmodic, enhances bile secretion, reducing flatulence and laxative agent in hypertension and atherosclerosis (especially headaches), liver and gastrointestinal tract.
Infusion of herbs used in hypertension stage I and II.Powder from the seeds is used as an expectorant, carminative, choleretic, laxative and diuretic.There are indications that the application of dill seed powder or infusion as a means of stimulating the lactation.
In folk medicine, herb fennel is used as a diuretic, expectorant, cholagogue, stimulant, tonic (especially fennel), laxative means.dill drugs indicated for flatulence, constipation (a mixture of dill with others. plants), chronic colitis.
fruit in the form of powders, infusions and decoctions are used for indigestion, abdominal pain, liver disease, high blood pressure, shortness of breath, respiratory diseases, children are given in dyspepsia, diarrhea, used as a means of stimulating the separation of milk in lactating mothers;decoction of the fruit and herbs - with an inflammation of the bladder.
As an external agent preparations of fennel is used as a lotion with eye diseases, and pustular skin lesions as a means of pest control (lice) - in the form of ointments on lard.
Description .Although all parts of the plant have fragrance, only crushed seeds are used as raw material for essential oil.Usually it is colorless, but sometimes it is a pale yellow color.Odour characteristic and strong, reminiscent of anise, but thinner and with a strong tinge of camphor.
main components: anethole - 60%, anisic aldehyde, camphene, d-benzophenone, dipentene, estragole, benzophenone, phellandrene and pinene.
essential oil - Oleum Foeniculi - 2-3 drops for children and adults 5-10 drops on a piece of sugar or honey is prescribed for bronchitis and intestinal cramps.
essential oil, which has a strong odor, resembling the smell of anise, used in the manufacture of perfumes colognes and perfumes.
The properties similar to dill essential oil.It is used for inhalation, as an expectorant, inward - to improve appetite, digestion, as a diuretic, tonic, antispasmodic, lactiferous tool.
For the prevention and treatment of gingival inflammation using the following mixture: fennel - 4 drops, lavender - 2, sage - 2, mint - 2, pine or fir - 2 drops of essential oils - 50 ml of water add 3 drops of the mixture.Rinse your mouth 3 times a day.Inside 2-3 drops of honey.
Caution. anethole in combination with estragole (methyl chavicol) can be dangerous.In my practice I have not had any negative reaction to the oil, but for those who have sensitive skin, you should, of course, beware.
Broth 1: 1h.spoon crushed fruit per cup of boiling water, leave for 20 minutes;use 2 tablespoons.1/4 spoon or cup 3-4 times a day.
Broth 2: 1 tbsp.spoon fruits or herbs with fruits to make a glass of boiling water, cool, strain.Take 1/2 cup 3 times a day (carminative, choleretic).
powder (with sugar to taste);for half or full hour. spoon 3 times a day (fill with water).
fennel oil - the fruit of a simple infusion of dill in sunflower oil;2-3 drops of sugar (sucking) 3 times a day for flatulence.
mixture of 1 (use in constipation): fruits of dill -2 part, juniper berries - 2 pieces;pound and mix with 1 part powder of dried leaves of aloe.1 h. Spoon mixture into a glass of boiling water, 1 tbsp.spoon 3 times a day.This drug is well regulates the functional activity of the stomach.
mixture of 2 (consumed in urinary retention) of ground fruits of dill - 2 tablespoons.spoon roots elderberry powder -
3 tbsp.spoons, camel hay powder - 1 tbsp.spoon of aloe powder - 1 tbsp.a spoon.Take 1 tbsp.spoon mixture into a glass of boiling water;take 1 tbsp.spoon 3 times a day.
With increased excitability and insomnia drink infusion for 1 glass at night (see. Broth 2).
action and application. expectorant effect of the essential oil is due to anethole.Like anise, fennel is indicated for gastric atony, bowel spasms, dyspepsia, flatulence, increases lactation.
dill water - Aqua Foeniculi assigned to 1 teaspoon for children and adults 1 tablespoon 3-6 times a day with flatulence.
In diseases of the stomach and intestines is recommended that the infusion of the fruit of 5 g per 200 ml of water, 1/4 cup during the day.
therapeutic purposes.Fennel has long been considered a means of contributing to the digestion;as well as its sister plant dill, it is part of the healing water, which is given to children with colic.(In colic in children can help boiled carrots and dill water.)
Fennel - a wonderful tonic, helps to restore muscle energy.It is especially useful for athletes and those who are engaged in many sports, but also to recover from the disease.Frequent use of fennel, dill, fennel broth will bring huge benefits to your health.
Dill broth.Put 7.5 ml (0.5 tablespoons) of crushed seeds in a kettle and pour 600 ml of boiling water.Insist 7 minutes, then strain and drink.You can sweeten with honey (useful for athletes).Drink in the morning or during the day as a tonic.
Add 10 drops of oil into the hot water, fall into a bath in a relaxed state and soak for 10 minutes.