Useful and therapeutic properties of Salvia officinalis
Synonyms: Salvia pharmacy.
description.Long-term shrub height of 50-70 cm of the family Labiatae (Labiatae).The root woody, branched, powerful.The stem is quadrangular, in the lower part woody, gray and hairy on top, green.The leaves are opposite, petiolate, finely toothed, 5-8 cm long, 3-4 cm wide, with a wire-mesh surface.The flowers on short stalks, gathered in false whorl.Blooms in June-July
grayish-purple, rarely white or pink flowers.Seeds ripen in July and August.The fruit consists of four odnosemennyh nuts.The seeds have a rounded-ovoid shape.Weight of 1000 seeds - 7-8 of
Medicinal raw: the leaves.
Biological features.To obtain a high yield of leaves is necessary to measure the soil moist.
In areas with cold and with little snow ground sage freezes.In the first year of life is growing slowly, and forms several leafy shoots.From the second year, in the spring plant produces up to 100 or more shoots.Over time, they lignified and saved for the next years.With timely removal prior to the sap f
Distribution.Homeland Salvia officinalis - the Mediterranean.In Ukraine, mainly in the southern regions, it is grown as an essential oil, medicinal and ornamental plant.
chemical composition.The leaves contain essential oil (2.5%), a number of condensed tannins (4%) triterpene acids, diterpenes, bitter and resinous (5-6%), flavonoids, coumarin and other esculetin compound.The composition of essential oils include cineole (up 15%), thujone, pinene, Salvia, borneol, camphor, peel and other terpenoids.
Application.Salvia is very versatile.Galenovo sage preparations have astringent, anti-inflammatory, disinfectant, expectorant, estrogen and hypoglycemic action, reduces sweating, increase the secretion of gastric juice, have mild antiseptic properties, strengthen the walls of blood vessels.In scientific medicine is used mainly externally: to rinse the mouth and throat in stomatitis, gingivitis, ulcers in the mouth, with the preparations, angina, catarrh of the upper respiratory tract;douching with inflammatory diseases of the vagina, and when belyah Endocervicitis;lotions, bathing, local and shared bath for inflammatory skin diseases, septic wounds and ulcers, minor burns and frostbite.
drug Salvini (acetone extract of sage leaves) are used in catarrhal and ulcerative necrotic gingivitis, acute and chronic aphthous stomatitis, periodontal disease of 1-3 degree, phlegmonous adenitis, abscess (after opening).Depending on the nature of the pathological process Salvini assigned for irrigation, lubricating, washing, applications and administration in turundas channels and pathological pockets (10 min).The course of treatment - 2-10 sessions.
Oral sage shown in gastritis, gastric ulcer and duodenal ulcer with reduced secretory activity of the gastrointestinal tract, and stomach cramps and intestines, inflammation of the bladder, at a hyperhidrosis (in menopause), with some feverish conditions, tuberculosis;positive therapeutic effect is also observed in inflammation of the upper respiratory tract, diarrhea of various origins, inflammation of the liver and gall bladder, mild forms of diabetes.For the treatment of diabetes sage is used in combination with other herbs.Infusion of sage give nursing mothers to suppress milk secretion.
Use sage in the treatment of hemorrhoids.The treatment method is as follows: after a cleansing enema of cool boiled water make therapeutic enema infusion of concentrated: 2-3 tablespoons sage leaves per 100 ml of boiling water (insist 15-20 min, filter and using syringe injected into the rectum).To infusion absorbed, the patient should lie down for 20-30 minutes.Such procedures do during the week (the infusion is prepared on a daily basis).Patients are advised to abstain from alcohol and avoid constipation (observe proper diet and at night to take 2 pills buckthorn extract brittle).
sage leaves are part of the ingredients for the preparation of the thoracic teas.Using drugs salvia, you should remember about the differences actions aqueous and alcoholic extracts.This is due to the degree of dissolution of active substances.The aqueous extracts are effective in diabetes, digestive disorders, hyperhidrosis, and alcohol as an antispasmodic, anti-inflammatory and antiseptic.It will be appreciated that the use of alcoholic extract in a large amount for a long time may cause side effects in the form of epileptic seizures.When inflammation of the kidneys and a strong cough medicines used sage inside contraindicated.Sage is used in homeopathy.
Agrotehnika growing.Site selection.Under the sage should be given areas, protected from cold winds Northeastern.Well-lit, are far from roads.The soil should be fertile, structural.The best preceding sage are couples or winter, reaching a couple of fertilizer, and the pro-Sapna culture, growing, usually on fertilized soil.Due to the fact that sage can grow in one place for up to five years, it is recommended to move to nearby sites, or to enter into special crop rotation with perennial grasses.
Tillage.If the precursors of sage were cereals, immediately after harvesting the soil plowed to a depth of 27-30 cm. On soils with shallow topsoil layer and deepen it necessarily make organic and mineral fertilizers.In early spring harrowed field, before sowing and cultivated to a depth of 10-12 cm. Then, the second and harrowed ukatyvayut rollers.In the first year it is recommended cultivation of plowed fields with harrowing to reduce weed growth.
fertilization.Organic fertilizers as manure and compost should be applied at the rate of 20-30 t / ha, adding 2-3 kg / ha of superphosphate.With a shortage of the amount of manure can be reduced by half with simultaneous application of fertilizers (30-40 kg / ha of active ingredient).During sowing in rows make 25-35 kg / ha of granulated superphosphate.
reproduction.The most rational way of reproduction is the early spring sowing the soil with inter-row spacing of 60 cm Seeding rate of 8-9 kg / ha, planting depth
2-3 cm, and on heavy soils -.. To 2 cm Sow vegetable or grain drill.
Care plantations.The first is carried out between the rows fluffing before emergence.To do this simultaneously with sage buckwheat seeds were sown as a beacon culture - 0.5 kg / ha.When plants appear 2-3 pairs of true leaves, buketirovanie produce a specific pattern: cut 20-30 cm, leaving a bunch of 10-15 cm shoots break through very thick..In the first year of life, inter-row tillage and weeding weeds produce 3-5 times.In late autumn the bushes spud, and in winter delay the moisture.In the early spring with the aim of rejuvenating shoots transient plantations mow or cut woody stems at a height of 8-10 cm from the soil surface.If such care plant yield is increased by nearly 40%, the content of essential oil is significantly increased.
fertilization.In order to increase productivity make local fertilizer in the form of manure (4-6 t / ha) or bird droppings (3-5 t / ha).
On the plantations the first year the plants should be fed landing ground during buketirovaniya, and the second - a month before harvesting the leaves.Plants of the second, third and subsequent years of life fed for 20-30 days before harvesting.In the absence of organic fertilizers Mineral make the rate of 20-35 kg / ha of active ingredient of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium.
Harvesting.Collect leaves and grass.After the first year of landing sage harvested in late August to the winter time to have new leaves.Harvested by hand for three to four sets.The first charge is produced during flowering, when the lower leaves reach a length of 8 cm. Last time collect the remaining leaves with the tip of the stem in late summer.Now many farms produce continuous mechanical harvesting reaper at a height of 13-15 cm from the soil surface.
dried leaves indoors.It is best to use special dryer.Here, at a temperature of 30-40 "C leaves humidity adjusted to 50-60%, then evaporated to dryness at a temperature of 50-60 ° C for 8-10 hours, bringing the moisture content to 13%. The grass is dried in the open field or currents, and in bad weather-. under the eaves dried mass harvester threshed and cleaned of crushed leaves and stems of various impurities sifting through a metal sieve
The average yield of dry leaves, the first landing of the plant is 3-6 kg / ha, the second and the third -. 6-12 p/ ha.
Packaging. Dried leaves are compressed and packed in bales weighing 50 kg.
storage. in a clean, dry, well-ventilated area.
Growing seeds. For seed-aside areas on a fertile soil, inoculated seed fieldsobtained on the breeding and research stations. If you can not provide separate areas sown to industrial plantations, during flowering produce varietal weeding. Cleaning is carried out a self-propelled combine harvester, after the majority of the lower cup dried up flowers and seeds will be brown.The seeds are dried, purified by fanning mills, sortovalnitsah.Store in a dry place in bags weighing 10-20 kg.