Echinacea purpurea ( rudbeckia )
perennial herb of the family Asteraceae (Asteraceae).In the second year of life throughout the growing season develops numerous shoots up to 150 cm in height. Stems are strong, often solitary, naked or slightly pubescent.The leaves are rough, jagged, lower - egg-shaped, on long petioles winged, drawn from the top, with five longitudinal veins.Upper - ovate-lanceolate, sitting with three veins.Inflorescence baskets (up to 10 cm in diameter), located at the tips of stems and branches, solitary, involucre scaly, four-row two.Marginal flowers - a pale crimson, reed, fruitless.Domestic - tubular, bisexual, orange and yellow.Fruit - a greyish-brown achene tetrahedral wedge odds we narrowed to the base, with the forelock.Baskets fluffy, easy and free of pulverized seeds.Achenes you sokomaslyanistye, astringent taste, readily eaten by rodents and birds.The plant blooms from June until autumn.Xie exchange ripen in October.Weight of 1000 seeds - 3.6-4.5 g
medicinal raw materials.All organs ehinadei.
Biological features.Echinacea purpurea is propagated by seeds or vegetatively.Laboratory germination of freshly achenes - 87-97% germination 48% (on day 7).The optimum germination temperature of - 20 C. In a room lit seeds germinate better than dark.Seed pre-treatment is not required.High germination is maintained for three years.In the field, the seeds demanding to soil moisture and temperature.For ehinadei crops in the first year of vegetation (especially the first 20-35 days) need careful maintenance.This is due to the fact that the seedlings easily drowned out by weeds.The first soil cultivation is manual weeding rows and fluffing rows.You can not fall asleep ground sprouts, since they will die.Education begins many-headed rhizome 2-3 year life of the plant.Therefore, we recommend echinacea to collect on the second and third year of culture.Later, the raw material quality deteriorates.
In phase Echinacea bloom comes in late June and blooms 32-35 days.Achenes Maturation occurs in late August - early September.First mature achenes central baskets, then the side of the first and second orders.The greatest number of high-quality seed achenes formed on plants 2 and 3 of the vegetation period.
Distribution.Under natural conditions, Echinacea purpurea grows in subtropical and temperate regions of North America, in mixed and deciduous forests, steppe and steppe.As a medicinal plant grown in the Ukraine Institute of Medicinal Plants of the Ukrainian Academy of Agrarian Sciences.Areas of possible cultivation - Polesie and forest-steppe of Ukraine.
chemical composition.The plant contains caffeic acid derivatives, essential oils, polysaccharides, resins, phi tosteriny, various organic acids and others.
Application.Echinacea purpurea has long been used by the Indians of North America for the treatment of festering, dol-Go healing wounds, burns, bites of poisonous snakes.With the purpose of treatment using fresh rhizomes with roots in abscesses, various infectious and septic diseases.
echinacea preparations increase the body's defenses and ZMA, because they are modulators of the immune system.According to foreign authors tincture, juice, injection of Echinacea are effective in bacterial ointment, and in -virus, respiratory and many chronic diseases of autoimmune nature, in septic processes in many skin, gynecological and urological diseases.
Agrotehnika growing.Site selection.The highest yields of Echinacea purpurea gives fertile, moist enough and clean soil from weeds, preferring sandy loam or loamy.The best precursors for her - legumes and row crops.In rotation this culture takes at least 2 years.
Tillage.When sowing Echinacea purpurea after grain predecessors used conventional tillage - shallow plowing and tilling to a depth of 25-27 cm
spring moisture is necessary to carry out the closure by harrowing..Before sowing, cultivation is carried out at a depth of 7-8 cm. To ensure a uniform depth of seeding a field ringed ukatyvayut (CCZ-6A) or smooth rollers in one unit with a harrow and sow immediately.
fertilization.Echinacea purpurea is very sensitive to fertilizer.The main humus fertilizers are applied at the rate of 20 t / ha and mineral fertilizers (NPK) 60 kg / ha of plowing.To provide plant nutrition in the early period when seed sowing make superphosphate at a dose of 20-30 kg / ha.Fertilizing plants is carried out on a 2 year life in the regrowth phase.
reproduction.Sowing should be performed Semyanko dry spring (April), when the soil warms up and +10 ° C.North spend vegetable seeders (CPA-2.8; 4.2-SKON; SB-4.2), fitted with limiters seeding depth to a depth of 2-3 cm in wide aisles with 45 cm at seeding rate of 12 kg / ha.Granular superphosphate sifted uniformly mixed with Semyanko just before backfilling mixture into the drill.Seedlings appear 15-30 days after sowing.
Care plantations.The first cultivation cultivators produce a one-sided legs, razors and protection n s E shields to a depth of 4-5 cm and weeding between the rows is carried raspuschivanie cultivators KRN-2.8.;KRN-4.2.Total during the growing season in the first year of cultivation make 3-4 and 2-3 between the rows of hand weeding.
On the second and subsequent years of vegetation in the spring before the start of echinacea regrowth renewal kidneys clean dry stalks and harrowed crop in a transverse direction relative to the rows of medium and heavy harrows.Next row treatments produce 2-3 before closing above-ground mass of plants in the beds.tillage depth of 8-10 cm. Weeding is carried out in rows as needed.
Harvesting.Cleaning herb raw material is produced on the 2 year life in the phase of mass flowering of the first half (July).Yields of dry grass on average 100 kg / ha.Crop material to the place of drying dumped and dried in a dryer or other conveyor using teploregulyatora.Drying is carried out at a temperature of 40-50 ° C.Grass Yield - 27%.The rhizomes and roots, depending on weather conditions, harvested in late September - early October.Before their harvest aboveground mass mowing silage harvester and taken out of the field.The rhizomes and roots dug Kartofelekopatel 1,4-FTC through which shake it from the earth and placed on the surface.Loading of raw materials in the transport can be carried out manually or Valeriano-harvester VK-0.3 and to carry on a sink.
to clean the roots and rhizomes from the soil using a drum-type washing machines, washing is carried out quickly, averting this process for 15-20 minutes.Washed roots with rhizomes spread over 1-2 days under a shed in the well-ventilated shelves or floors with a hard surface layer of 15-20 cm for podvyalivaniya.Raw shake up 2-3 times a day.Slightly dried rhizomes before drying sorted out, removing the rotten parts and remnants of the aerial parts.
Dried material on the frame dryers with heat generators WFP-400, VPT-600.The drying temperature is 40-50 ° C.The dried raw material is ground.Yields of dry roots 22 L / ha.
Storage.In a clean, dry, well-ventilated room on the shelves.
Growing seeds.For seed seed lots can be separated from the general industrial sludge to lay their crops for this purpose.
Agrotehnika growing and caring for the seed plantations are the same as for the raw materials.Collect achenes Echinacea starting from the second year of vegetation.They ripen unevenly.To begin harvesting when achenes in the central and lateral baskets of the second order become dark brown and their forelock easily separated.
Calendar terms of harvesting achenes - late September - early October, depending on weather conditions of the year.Seeds harvested manually tearing the basket and putting them in bags or grain harvesters SK-5.To separate the forelock threshed mass was passed through kleveroterku.Seeds can not be sown, if some of them are fruits and seeds of quarantine weeds, pests and diseases.Keep achenes in bags, according to GOST 6070-80 mass of 40 kg in the dry storage facilities on the shelves, located at a height of not less than 10 cm from the floor.
yield of Echinacea purpurea achenes 2-3-Godich-governmental plantations is 2.5-3.0 t / ha.