Brief information on the plant organs

August 12, 2017 17:59 | Drug Plants

In ie plants are divided into two groups: lower and higher.Lower plants are unicellular, multicellular, and a simple body structure, called thallus.These plants do not have vegetative organs: root, stem and leaves.This group includes bacteria, algae, fungi and lichens.

body of higher plants are always multicellular with specialized groups of cells that make up tissues.They have a vegetative organs.Only Mosses have no roots, they are replaced by rhizoids - outgrowths of the skin cells.

Higher plants are divided into:

a) arhegonialnye - reproduce by spores (mosses, ferns, horsetails, and club mosses);

b) gymnosperms - propagated by seeds, but the latest form of naked, undisguised and surrounded on all sides by carpels ovules;

c) angiosperms, or flowering plants - are the ovules within the ovary of the pistil, which is formed before fertilization of fused carpels.

the botanical descriptions of medicinal plants given below you can easily imagine, and to find the right plant in nature, but it needs t

o have an understanding of the structure of its root, stem, leaves, flowers, buds and fruits.

roots strengthen plants in soil and provide them with water and nutrients.

In some plants have a taproot that

ROOT

stands out as the rod from him depart side of the first, second order, and so on. D. These roots are called rod and found in gymnosperms (pine, spruce, etc..), as well as in the class of dicotyledonous angiosperms.

Monocots stem roots have not.The root system of these consists of a beam (lobes) of the roots of the same thickness.These roots are called fibrous, they meet and dicots, for example, in a buttercup.

In some plants, especially at high humidity, the roots are formed on the stem and even on the leaves, they are called subordinate.

Adventitious roots and depart from the rhizome - a modified stem (from lily of the valley, sweet, wheat grass, etc.).

If the roots take on other functions, they are different from the usual.These roots, as well as other bodies referred to as modified or metamorphosed.Mutated roots of beets, carrots, radishes and other root vegetables are called.In these plants the first year of life forms rosette of leaves and roots are laid in store nutrients, why they become very thick.Due to these substances the following year formed the stem with leaves, flowers and fruits, and then, all of the nutrients are consumed, and the plant will cease to exist.Thus, root plants are biennial.

tuberous roots with a supply of nutrients

Types roots:

well - the core;b - clumpy;in - adventitious roots on the stem of corn roots

Types:

well - the core;b - clumpy;in - adventitious roots on the stem of corn

found some perennial plants (dahlias, aconite, etc..).

main root growing vertically downwards.The horizontal location of underground plant organs indicate their origin stem (rhizome).

Stem brings leaves to the light, for him there is movement of nutrients.

The stems are round section (chamomile, corn, etc.), Hollow inside as a result of the destruction of the core (horse sorrel, buttercup).If the core is not formed as in cereals (rye, wheat), called culm stalk.Flattened stem from Calamus, triangular - from lily of the valley, sedges, four-sided - the majority of Labiatae plants, ribbed - from valerian, horsetail, etc.

Place attachment plate to the stem is called a node, and the stem segments between nodes -. Interstices.

Stems are erect when positioned vertically above the ground;erect or ascending, bottom if they are horizontal, and above - vertical (y bearberry, thyme, etc.);creeping (from Lycopodium clavatum, creeping buttercup and others.);curly (from bean, bindweed, Chinese magnolia vine, etc.).Plants with curly stems called lianas.They can be both herbaceous and woody.Cling to the stems are attached to the support by means of tendrils, like grapes.

grassy plant with green stem, in the spring and die in the fall, called herbaceous.Exceptions are evergreen herbaceous plants that have elevated stem winters (Lycopodium clavatum, saxifrage, and others.).Herbaceous plants are annual, biennial and perennial.

tree is a woody plant with a thick stalk

in section:

well - rounded;b - rounded, hollow inside;in - culm;g - flattened;d - triangular: e - tetrahedral;Well - ribbed

STEM

Stem in the section:

well - rounded;b - rounded, hollow inside;in - culm;g - flattened;d - triangular: e - tetrahedral;Well - ribbed

ple stem - trunk, which runs branches (oak, linden, etc.).

shrubs have no trunk.All woody branches have almost the same thickness (currant, buckthorn, viburnum and others.).The same plant can have the form of a tree or shrub, such as wild cherry, alder buckthorn.

dwarf shrubs have a woody bottom and at the top of a grassy stalk (thyme, rue et al.).

Stems operating functions other than the basic, modified, or metamorphosed.This - the spines, for example, in rhineberry, buckthorn and other evidence of the origin of the stem anatomical structure, and the fact that they are sometimes formed leaves..Brambles is difficult to be separated from the stem, they can only be broken off.It is necessary to distinguish between the spines of thorns, which represent education cortex and therefore can be easily removed.Spikes have rosehip, cultural roses, raspberries and other

K modified stems include the rhizomes -. Breeding ground shoots - vertical, horizontal and kosorastuschie.On the rhizome buds and leaves are developed or underdeveloped, in the form of scales, units in the form of scars, rings, rounded ridges, and so. N. From the rhizomes depart adventitious roots.

metamorphosed stems:

and - tuber;b - thin rhizome;in - rhizome thick;of - onion;etc. - in a cut onion

metamorphosed stems:

and - tuber;b - thin rhizome;in - rhizome thick;of - onion;etc. - bulb in

section Rhizomes are thick (male fern, marsh calamus, coil, etc..) or thin, sometimes solo mopodobnymi (wheatgrass).All plants with roots are perennial.

tubers stem origin - a nutrient deposits in several places interstices underground stems (potato).Tuberous perennial plants.

bulbs consist of shortened tupokonicheskogo stem - stems, which runs the thick flakes - modified leaves with a supply of nutrients, and lobe of adventitious roots.Between the scales there are buds, stalks (onions, lily, and others.) Are formed of which the spring.Bulbous plants are classified as monocots.They are always long-term.

Antennae grapes, strawberry mustache also stem origin.

Plants with thick, succulent stems, like a cactus, or leaves, like aloe, succulents called (from the Latin word succus - juice).Such plants can be a long time without water.

SHEET

Sheet - a body of air power plants.The leaves occurs respiration and transpiration (controlled evaporation of water).

leaves form a very diverse.In most plants the bottom sheet consists of a narrow part - and an upper stem, largely flat - lamina.Leaves without petiole are called sessile.

Two leaf at the base of the petiole stipules form (are legumes, Rosaceae and some other plants).In buckwheat stipules fused, forming a filmy tube, called a bell surrounding the stem above the node.At umbrella and some other plants, the lower part of the stem extended and forms a leaf sheath.

Leaves with a plate of whole or dismembered called simple, they come in different shapes.

Needle leaves called needles (pine, spruce and other plants).Shorter, but wide igolcha

Tide leaves, like the common juniper, called subulate.

Long leaves with parallel edges, like cereals, sweet flag, is called linear.

leaves, the length of which only 3-4 times greater than the width, called lanceolate or lanceolate as in many species of willow.

middle position between those and other occupied oblong leaves with a length of more than 3 to 4 times greater than the width, but the edges are not parallel (sea buckthorn).

rounded leaves of nasturtium, aspen.

Egg-shaped leaves have a pointed tip and rounded base.Such leaves of lilac, nettle.

If the stalk is attached to the narrow part of the leaf, leaves obovate call, for example from the bearberry.

If egg-shaped base plate has a notch, so the leaf - egg-shaped with a heart-shaped notch in

Simple whole leaves:

and - the needle;b - styloid;in - lnneyny;g - lancet;d - prodolgova-th;e - round;Well - egg-shaped;s - obovoid;and - egg-shaped with a heart-shaped notch at the base;to - heart-shaped;L - kidney-shaped;m - the elliptical;to-pointedly elliptical;on - arrow-shaped;to - spatulate

Simple whole leaves:

and - the needle;b - styloid;in - lnneyny;g - lancet;d - oblong;e - round;Well - egg-shaped;s - obovoid;and - egg-shaped with a heart-shaped notch at the base;to - heart-shaped;L - kidney-shaped;m - the elliptical;to-pointedly elliptical;on - arrow-shaped;to - spatulate

a - piece, b - a gear;in - Palmetto;g - crenate;d - notched, e - wavy;Well - crenate-toothed

Edge sheet:

base.A broad leaves of this type is called the core (linden).

Unlike heart-kidney-shaped leaves have a blunt apex, like the European Wild Ginger.

Elliptic leaves found in mullein, ficus.

If the tip and base of the sheet pointed, like cherry, buckthorn olhovidnoy, lily of the valley leaves pointy-called elliptical.

rarer swept leaves - at arrowhead and spatulate - nivyanki lower leaves.

If the stalk is attached not to the edge of the leaf blade, and by the middle part of it, like nasturtium leaves any form called the thyroid.

edge of the sheet may be intact, like a lily of the valley;gear, if there are on the edge of sharp teeth with equal sides, like a strawberry;serrated, if the parties are not equal, like a nettle, wild cherry;crenate, if teeth blunt - rounded, like mullein;incised, if there are on the edge of the recess, like a mother and stepmother;wavy, like watch a three-sheeted.

These main types of derivatives have.For example, bidentate at the edge of the leaves of Elecampane;crenate-toothed -.. male fern leaf segments, etc.

All the leaves with the edge of one piece called.When a deep cut leaves is called a dissected leaf blade.They are divided into two groups: palmate and pinnate.Called palmate leaves, whose length and width are about the same.These leaves generally have midrib.If the length exceeds the width, feathery leaves called.They always have a main vein.

palmate and pinnate leaves are in turn divided into three groups.

1. Blades - cuts the leaf blade reaches 1 / 4-1 / 3 of its width.These leaves can be palchatolopastnymi like a black currant, and pinnatilobate as oak, henbane.

2. Separate - cuts deeper, but do not reach the midrib or petiole.These leaves can be palchatorazdelnymi, like larkspur high and pinnatipartite like a dandelion.At dandelion

sharp blades are directed obliquely downward.These leaves are also called runcinate.

3. Dissection - cuts the deepest, reaching midrib or petiole.These leaves can be palchatorassechennymi like a buttercup, and pinnatisect, like valerian, cyanosis.

Accordingly, the depth of the cuts portions of the sheet between the latter are called vanes, lobes, segments.

When an odd number of segments of leaves with main vein called neparnoperistorassechennymi.

segments pinnate leaves can be deep cuts of the first order - these leaves are called dvazhdyperistorassechennye (male fern, chamomile), notched a second order - or trizhdyperistorassechennye mnogokratnoperisto-

dissected leaves with leaf blade:

and - palchatolopastny;b - palchatorazdelny;in - palchatorassechenny;g - neparnoperistorassechenny;etc. - three-bladed;e - tripartite;Well - trehrasse-chenny;s - pernstolopastny;and - pinnatipartite, Strugovndny;to - many kratnoperisto dissected

dissected leaves with leaf blade:

and - palchatolopastny;b - palchatorazdelny;in - palchatorassechenny;g - neparnoperistorassechenny;etc. - three-bladed;e - tripartite;Well - trehrasse-chenny;s - pernstolopastny;and - pinnatipartite, Strugovndny;to - many kratnoperisto dissected

dissected (garden dill, fennel, cumin).

In describing dissected leaves with leaf blade but the form is often indicated by the outline.For example, cumin leaves lanceolate in outline, but in form trizhdyperistorassechennye, oak - in outline obovate and pinnatilobate in shape with blunt blades.

If the lamina is composed of several leaves, the leaves are called complex.The leaves are attached to the stem or to the main vein short petioles.At the site of attachment is poorly developed mechanical tissue, and therefore the autumn leaf fall during the first fall off individual leaves, and then the remaining stalk with leaves.

leaves with three leaflets, like clover, called trifoliate.

compound leaves are also divided into palmate and pinnate.

palchatoslozhnyh leaves have no midrib and leaflets are attached to the petiole, like horse chestnut, in pinnate leaves have a main vein.When an odd number of leaves are called

and - trifoliate, b - palchatoslozhny;in - imparipinnately / d, g - parnopergg-stoslozhiy (paripinnate);d - dvazhdyparnoperistoslozhny (dvazhdyparno1kri-

and - trifoliate, b - palchatoslozhny c - imparipinnately / d, g - parnopergg-stoslozhiy (paripinnate); d - dvazhdyparnoperistoslozhny (dvazhdyparnokrineparnoperistoslozhnymi, like ash, licorice, and for even - parnoperistoslozhnymi,like a pea tree, which is popularly known as the yellow acacia. If leaves are in turn complicated as that of honey locust, acacia Lenkoran, they are called dvazhdyparno-pinnate. in the description of compound leaves to reduce the sheet name the word "complex" is sometimes omitted, calling licorice leavesimparipinnate, and honey locust -.. dvazhdyparnoperistymi etc.

compound leaves are very similar to the simple dissected their difference is that simple pinnate leaves there, especially at the top, fringe -. a narrow strip of the leaf blade, connecting the individual segments to each other.When isolation segments fringe torn from the lateral veins often stretched fibrovascular bundles in the form of strands.When isolation leaves composite sheet at the point of attachment is rounded footprint.

Venation in monocots may be parallel as maize, wheat and other cereals, arcuate or dugonervnym like lily.For dicots uglonervnoe characteristic veining when veins branch out, forming acute or nearly right angles to the branch location.Uglonervnoe veining can be palmate, like maple;feathery, like the oak;and a mesh if veins, repeatedly branching form a polygonal network, like sage, mullein, etc.

Such dicotyledons as plantain, yellow gentian, the main veins of a few, they are located

Venation sheet:.

and- parallel;b - arched;in - palmate;g - pinnate;etc. - net

Venation sheet:

and - in parallel;b - arched;in - palmate;g - pinnate;etc. - net rely arched and angled them depart side.Yu.Yu.