Terms and time of medicinal raw material collection
With Biran medicinal raw materials you need at a time when it contains the maximum amount of biologically active substances
.Accumulation in their underground parts of plants usually coincides with the accumulation of reserve nutrients that are usually observed at the end of the growing period - fall.Aerial parts of the plant accumulate biologically active substances, since the period of flowering to fruit formation.However, this pattern is not without exceptions.
Flowering same medicinal plant species in various areas of our country, at different latitudes and in different climatic zones occur simultaneously.At the same time in the valleys of Central Asia already blooming almonds, in Belarus, for example, is still snow.And even within a relatively small region there are differences in the timing of the collection of medicinal raw materials.For example, in Gomel, small-leaved lime blossoms typically 1 July and Polotsk - 10 days later.In addition, depending on weather conditions, flowering dates vary
aerial parts of plants collected in good weather, as the plants wet with dew or rain spoiled during drying.Underground organs may be digging in any weather, because before drying them usually have to wash.
should not collect plants along the motorways, as raw materials accumulate a large amount of lead that is unsafe for health.
Kidneys (Gemmae) - unblown plant shoots.Trees and shrubs are formed in the axils of the leaves and on the top of the stem to fall.There are terminal buds, which are blossoming, promote elongation of the main stem and lateral branches, and axillary, of which develop side shoots.The resulting kidney winter and spring swell and start to grow.Because some forms of renal stem with leaves - they are called leaf, from other - the flowers, the flower buds are called.
Gather buds in early spring, in March - April, when they are only swollen, but has not yet gone into growth.Birch buds can be harvested before - in January.Large kidneys, such as pine trees, cut branches with a knife, and small, such as birch, cut with branches, dried and threshed or terminated hands in canvas gloves.Made from birch branches broom for household needs threshed to obtain kidneys.Putting the kidneys, in any case can not break off or cut off the terminal, especially at the top of the main stem.
We collect only poplar leaf buds.The first in this tree blossom flower buds, of which formed catkins and leaf still closed at this time.They are cut with a knife, or pluck her hands during the flowering plants.It is convenient to do with the spring pruning of trees.
Bark (Cortex) - the outer part of the stem and root.In medicine, used the bark of trees and shrubs.It is collected in the early spring during sap flow, in April - May.At this time, the cambium cells (on the border of the bark and wood) to swell, and the bark peels off easily.At a later gathering bark is hard to separate from the timber.Collecting may be subject only to the smooth bark of young branches, it contains many old cork and few active ingredients.
collection should be aligned with forestry.In forestry indicate where the felling of oak, uprooting bushes will be made.When felling the bark is removed completely from all branches.If the plant will be used
in the future, a strip of bark left to sap flow through it happened.To peel the bark, making the two semicircular cut with a knife at a distance of 20-30 cm, 2-3 connect their longitudinal incision and tear off the bark in the form of grooves.When harvesting buckthorn bark peeled off, it is often only the bottom and left in the form of tapes for several days.Slightly dried bark is then removed and dried.
collected crude bark should not be put grooves on one another.From this it is moldy and rotten.
bark covered bushy or leafy lichen (popularly referred to as "moss"), do not need to collect.In an extreme case, lichen scraped off beforehand with a knife.
leaves (Folia) are collected shortly before or during the flowering plants.The exceptions are the leaves mother and stepmother, who collected after flowering, as at the time of flowering they do not exist;and leaves of some plants, such as watches, which accumulate more biologically active substances after flowering.
Rip lower leaves, leaving the top, so as not to damage the flowering and fruiting plants.Thick juicy stalks, containing or delaying the drying small biologically active substances are removed (watch, mother-and-stepmother, plantain, etc.).Stinging nettle leaves collected plants with gloves or first mow and pluck the leaves and stems when they fade and lose their pungency.
When collecting small leathery leaves (bearberry, cranberries, etc.), First cut off the tops of the plants, dried them, and then pluck the leaves, stems combing, or plants are threshed, discarding stem parts.Final cleaning is done by sieving.
Flowers (Flores) harvested at the beginning of flowering.Collected later, they change their color or crumble after drying.Often this type of raw material goods managers mistakenly called flowers.This means the individual plant flowers like hawthorn;parts of a flower, like the mullein, which collected only beaters;and the whole inflorescence, such as baskets Asteraceae (as tansy, chamomile) and linden flowers with the coating sheet, and so on. d.
When harvesting flowers they pluck without tsvetono
rods, and in the collection baskets Compositae plants comb between divorced hands fingersand then terminate the flower stalk.When collecting camomile use special combs-scoops.
Baskets Compositae reed flowers are collected in the last phase of the horizontal position.An exception is arnica, which inflorescences were collected at an earlier stage, namely during the vertical arrangement ligule.Baskets of Asteraceae with some tubular flowers are collected in the beginning of the blooming of marginal flowers - on centripetal bloom - or at the beginning of the middle of blooming flowers - with centrifugal flowering.Such demands are made because the receptacle at -slozhnotsvetnyh always contains a stock of nutrients and drying them in the wild flowering continues, why the flowers are separated from the receptacle, if they tufted fluff appear immature fruit.Improved grinding reduces the quality of raw material, making it unsuitable for consumption.The same applies to the collection of grass Asteraceae plants.
When gathering flowers from the trees and bushes for prigibaniya branches use a stick with a hook for cutting branches - gardening knives or scissors (shears).
Flowers - the most delicate parts of the plant, so they can not be laid tight in a closed container.It is best to collect in the basket after gathering immediately start drying.
Herbs (Herbae).The term "grass" in Pharmacognosy mean leafy and flowering stems of herbaceous plants.Collect the grass at the beginning of flowering, cutting with a knife or sickle aboveground part at the level of the lower leaves.Bare stems not collected.If plants form pure thickets, their scythe mowing and foreign plants are removed before drying.In plants with stiff stems, leaves are collected separately (if they are large) and flowering tops (wormwood, a series, clover and others.).At half-shrubs are cut off the aerial parts, dried, and then pluck the leaves and flowers, and stalks discarded.Plants can thresh after drying to remove stalks, but in this case too pulverized crude drug.Thus, half-shrubs under
«grass» means a mixture of leaves and flowers.
Annuals too thin and fine roots (uliginose) or, on the contrary, with thick but containing many active ingredients, harvested with the roots (dandelion, celandine).
The fruits and seeds (Fructus et semi na).Dried fruits and seeds are harvested ripe, sieved and finally dried.The final purification to produce fanning mills.In plants with a non-simultaneously blossoming buds ripening also occur simultaneously.Ripe fruit crumble, leading to large losses (cumin, coriander, etc.).In this case the plants are cut in the tops of the time when half of the fruit is ripe, then bind plants into bundles and suspended in dry ripening room.Ripening fruit crumble, they can be easily collected and dried snopiki thresh.In order to avoid losses should collect fruits umbrella early in the morning when the dew has not yet gone, or in wet weather.
Juicy fruit is removed early in the morning or evening, as collected in the afternoon, in the intense heat, they quickly deteriorate.Rose hips are collected a few days before full maturity.The elasticity and the fruits are not deformed during transportation this time the fruit wall.
Harvested fruit piled in a small basket and quickly delivered to the place of drying.They should not contain impurities leaves, immature, contaminated or spoiled fruit, so they should be sorted in the collection, but not before drying, when the fruits are easily deformed and slightly moistened.
Juicy fruits in everyday life is often referred to as berries, which does not always correspond to the same botanical terms.For example, raspberry fruit is called a drupe team, bird cherry - drupe, hips - false, rowan - yablokoobraznym;odnosemennye dried fruits - seeds.
underground plant organs are harvested in late summer or fall at the end of the vegetative development when ripe and start to flake off.In some plants harvested root (Radix), like a dandelion, others - only the rhizome (Rhizoma), like sweet flag, rhizome and separated from their roots (Rhizoma et radix), like burnet, rhizome with unseparated roots (Rhizoma cum radicibus), like valerian, Cloud
Ben (Tuber), bulb (Bulbus).To restore the thickets of medicinal plants in the hole, resulting in the procurement of groundwater bodies, shake off the seeds or buried portion of the rhizome.
Underground organs can be harvested in the spring, before the above-ground parts are touched in growth.However, in the spring to collect them it is much more difficult, since it is not always stored aboveground part and it is difficult to determine where the plant grows.When shoots with leaves appear on the plants whose formation spend nutrients, the content of bioactive substances in the raw material decreases.
biennial plants have underground organs harvested in the first year of life, in the autumn, from plants without the stem.
roots and rhizomes dug with shovels (marsh plants - fork), shake off the ground, cut the entire aboveground part and washed with water.Thick rhizome with thin roots (valerian, cyanosis, etc..) To get a better wash from the ground, cut lengthwise into 2-4 pieces so that the roots are not cut, divide them and wash with cold running water, very comfortable in the basket, immersing them inriver.When removing and immersing the basket, allowed to drain the dirty water.Rhizomes with the roots of cyanosis and other plants that contain saponins, washed quickly.Raw material containing mucus as marshmallow root, you can not wash, and zavyalit first, then clear the jams.Untreated same roots can be washed, just very quickly.
When harvesting of organs of plants should be read first with the normative and technical documentation, to know how to be a medicinal raw materials: the length and the thickness of the stem at the grass roots of the thickness, etc.