Drying of medicinal raw materials .output coefficients of dry raw materials
fresh crude drug is rarely used.To use the juice of fresh leaves of aloe, plantain and some other plants.They are processed immediately after harvest.
mainly dried herbs, dry them for a long time retain physiological activity.In the living plant active substances are accompanied by enzymes - biological catalysts of protein nature, are divided among themselves.A living cell has the ability to hold the enzymes, but they cause wilting cleavage of biologically active substances to simpler organic compounds.That's why you need to dry medicinal raw material immediately after harvest and quickly.When the water is removed from the cells, enzymatic processes are terminated.If the raw medicinal drug substances do not change when heated above 60-70 °, drying is carried out at this temperature.The dried crude drugs thus generally does not lose its properties even at short soggy upon storage.If the drug raw material is dried at a lower temperature, when it resumes otsyrevanie action-enzymes, and its activity decline
sometimes rely on the action of enzymes, if acting on the body are not the primary matter of living plants and their cleavage products.Then the dried crude drug not immediately, but after his withering.So come, for example, in the procurement of valerian.
optimum drying temperature differs depending on the chemical composition of raw materials and some properties of biologically active substances.
Raw materials containing essential oils, dried slowly, expanding it with a thick layer at a temperature of 25 to 30 °.This essential oil is continuing education, and the dried raw materials it will be greater than in the fresh plant.Birch buds, collected branches, dried in the open air or in a well ventilated cold rooms, as in the heat, they can be dismissed.
feed comprising glycosides and alkaloids, dried at 50-60 °, Solanaceae plant part containing alkaloidgiostsiamin (belladonna, henbane, and Datura OE) - at 40 °, since at a higher temperature enters the alkaloid atropine,which operates in two times weaker.Bearberry leaves and lingonberry can be dried at higher temperatures, because they contain arbutin glycoside can withstand heat up to 150 °.Rapid drying of the high temperature raw material prevents oxidation of tannins and therefore change color of raw material.
Raw material - containing vitamins, especially vitamin C, dried rapidly at 80-100 ° in order to avoid oxidation of ascorbic acid.But this temperature range does not always apply.For example, in addition blackcurrant fruit vitamin C has an essential oil, so their drying is carried out at 50-60 °.
drying features listed in the description of the individual species, but there are general rules.
Before drying raw materials are sorted, removing tramp parts of other plants or the same plant not provided for procurement (for example, the leaves of the flower raw materials, parts damaged by insects, brownish, and so on. D.).
Dried material, using natural and artificial heat.Natural drying is performed in the open air in good weather, the wind.At night, the raw material is transferred to a room or under a canopy.The indoors is best to dry in the attic under a tin roof or in a ventilated shed.The room should be equipped with shelves with sliding frames, covered with gauze or mesh.You can dry the raw materials to the gauze hammocks, hanging them between the rafters, making the struts made of thin wooden strips or narrow strips of plywood, which is nailed to the two hundred
ron at a distance of 80-100 cm. With such a drying raw materials not only ventilated top and side, butand bottom, making the drying takes place faster.
Medicinal raw materials are laid out on shelves or hammocks with a thin layer and periodically inverted.
Raw, needing high temperatures, dried in the dryer, and the absence of them - in the Russian stove or her.The oven should not be too hot, otherwise the raw materials will burn.When drying in the oven door should be ajar.Dry raw materials, especially berries, and can be in the oven gas stove, the flame of a gas burner should be minimal, and the closet door was ajar.With larger workpieces using ovoschesushilki.
leaves, flowers and herbs are dried, protecting them from sunlight, the leaves are not turned yellow, the flowers do not fade, do not lose their natural color.However, in good sunny weather can dry the flowers of cornflower with preservation of their natural color.Slow drying in the shade of resulting in discoloration of many flowers.
fruit, seeds, and many groundwater bodies can be dried in the sun.
kidneys plants are dried in a well ventilated area, scattering them thinly and often stirring or removing from the branches.In a warm room, they begin to blossom.
bark dried in good weather, outdoors or in a well-ventilated area.Properly dried bark becomes brittle.
dried leaves attics or ventilated areas, laying out in 2-3 layers and turning regularly.Leaves a thin lamina dries unevenly.First, become dry leaf blades and stems and petioles are still soft.To dry them until they become brittle.After drying leaves raked together and left for a few days.Due to its hygroscopic properties, they attract moisture from the air and packaging less crumble.
flowers laid over a thin layer so as not to turn on drying.Baskets can stir Asteraceae (tansy, chamomile, arnica, and others.).
dried herbs as well as leaves.The well dried grass is not only the leaves but also the stems must break rather than bend.
can dry grass, linking them in small bundles and hanging on the ropes.
Dried fruits and seeds lose moisture before obmolachivaniya, so they do not have to be dried.If necessary, they finally dried in air or indoors.Juicy fruit withered before drying in the sun and dried at a temperature of 70-90 "C in furnaces or kilns. Well dried fruits do not stain the hands and does not stick together in clumps during compression.
rhizomes and roots which do not contain essential oils, can be dried in the sun. Strong-smelling rhizome, valerian dried in the shade or in a well ventilated area. in bad weather, this raw material is dried at a high temperature or in a ventilated room. Before drying, thick roots and rhizomes are cut into pieces along, and long crosswise into pieces, very thick slices.When dried whole roots using low temperature to let it dry inside. dried roots and rhizomes should break.
recently, many procurement items taken from collectors not only dry, but also raw materials. In this case, it is dried using a special dryervarious designs. to determine the dry mass of raw material, are output coefficients. Multiplying the weight of the crude feed by a factor obtained dry mass of raw material.