The most important biologically active substances plant
life of the organism is provided by two processes - assimilation and dissimilation, which are based on the exchange of substances between the inside (body cells) and the external environment.For the normal course of metabolic processes necessary to maintain the constancy of chemical composition and physico-chemical properties of the internal environment (homeostasis).It depends on certain factors, among which an important place occupied by biologically active substances from food (vitamins, enzymes, minerals, trace elements, etc.) And performing harmonic interrelation and interdependence of all physiological and biochemical processes in the body.By normalizing, regulating all the vital functions of biologically active substances have - as an effective therapeutic effect.
The composition of medicinal raw materials include a variety of biologically active substances of various pharmacological action.
Alkaloids - organic nitrogen-containing compounds, mainly of vegetable origin, having basic properties.Ba
from aqueous solutions of alkaloids are precipitated tannins, salts of heavy metals, iodine, some other compounds and therefore incompatible with them medicines.
alkaloids possess very high physiological activity and thus in large doses - are poisons, and small - potent drugs for various actions: atropine, such as the pupil expands and raises the intraocular pressure, pilocarpine and, conversely, it narrows and lowers intraocular pressure;caffeine and strychnine excite the central nervous system, and it inhibits morphine;papaverine dilates blood vessels and lower blood pressure, and ephedrine narrows vessels and raises blood pressure and the like. d.
Many kinds of vegetative raw materials contain, as a rule, not one but several alkaloids are often different mode of action but quantitatively predominant onethem, which leads to the preferential nature of the effectiveness of medicinal plants and the total drugs from him.Thus, at the root of Rauwolfia serpentina contains 25 different alkaloids, but 10% of the total number of accounts in the reserpine, which has hypotensive (lowers blood pressure) and a sedan-tive (sedative) action.Just apply the total preparations of the plant roots.Second alkaloid - ajmaline - almost no such action has, it is used as an antiarrhythmic.
Vitamins - a group of organic substances of various structures vital to humans and animals for normal metabolism and the body's vital functions.Many of them are part of the enzyme, or participate in the formation of, activate or inhibit the activity of certain enzyme systems.Basically
vitamins are synthesized by plants and with food enter the body, some of them are produced by microbes living in the intestines.Vitamins D synthesized from lipids (Ms-ropodobnyh substances) of the skin under the influence of ultraviolet rays.
Insufficient vitamin content in food, as well as a violation of their assimilation by the body leads to severe metabolic disorders.The disease resulting from the lack of a vitamin in the body, called beriberi.When the relative failure of any vitamin vitamin deficiencies observed.Functions of vitamins are closely linked, so it is usually observed poliavitaminozy or poligipovitami-nozy.The first very rare, more often observed hypovitaminosis as a result of an irrational
tion power or an illness.These disorders can be observed as a result of long-term use of certain drugs (sulfonamides, antibiotics, etc.).But harmful and excess intake of some vitamins, because it leads to disruption of metabolic functions, known as hypervitaminosis.
divided into fat-soluble vitamins - A, D, E, F, K and water-soluble - all others.
Vitamin A is found only in foods of animal origin.In plants containing carotenoids (see. Pigments) being provitamin Vitamin A. They are converted to vitamin A in the liver and gut wall.This process occurs in the presence of fat in the diet, as well as bile and certain enzymes in the intestine.
carotenoid-rich root vegetables carrot, rose hips, buckthorn, mountain ash, marigold flowers.
main indicators to the therapeutic use of vitamin A are some eye diseases, lesions and skin diseases, acute respiratory infections, inflammation of the bowel, chronic gastritis, cirrhosis of the liver.Vitamin A and carotenoids play an important role in prevention of malignant neoplasms, and in combination with vitamins C, D and B group is indicated for the treatment and prevention of radiation injuries.
The group vitamin E include multiple connections - tocopherols.The most active is alpha-tocopherol.These substances play an important role in the metabolism of proteins, nucleic acids and steroids, contribute to the accumulation of vitamin A, protecting it from oxidation.Tocopherols are effective intracellular antioxidants regulate cell permeability.They are found in vegetable oils such as sunflower, linseed, peanut, soybean, sesame, and others. A significant amount of vitamin E contained in sea buckthorn oil, fruits cloudberry, chokeberry Aronia, rose and others.
of K vitamins are derived naphtho-quinone.Vitamin K (phylloquinone) is formed in the plant chlorophyll grains.A lot of it in the leaves of nettle, alfalfa grass, pine needles and spruce, leaves con
ray chestnut, carrot and parsley, cranberries, black currants and blueberries.It is found in foods of animal origin.
naphthoquinone derivatives are able to regulate the process of blood clotting (for lack of having bleeding), contribute to the process of regeneration (recovery) of the epithelium of the vascular wall, thus speeding up the healing of wounds.
Vitamin C - water soluble.Its properties have levorotatory ascorbic acid and the product is its reversible oxidation - dehydroascorbic acid.These forms easily pass one another.In the human body the vitamin C is not formed and supplied as a finished product or dietary dosage forms.It has a multilateral action: is involved in redox processes, affects the growth of the organism and its infectious disease resistance, the process of blood clotting, stimulates tissue regeneration, has beneficial effects on the metabolism of fats and lipids, it helps to eliminate cholesterol from the body, thus offering preventiveaction in atherosclerosis;together with flavoioidami possessing P-vitamin activity, increases the strength of blood vessel walls, preventing their fragility.The notion that scurvy occurs in the absence of ascorbic acid food just out of date.For the prevention and treatment of beriberi must be administered in two vitamins - C and P.
rich in vitamin C, rose hips, leaves and fruits of black currant, sea buckthorn, unripe walnut husk and Manchurian walnut, pine needles and spruce, primrose leaves spring.
glycosides - organic compounds from plants that have a variety of effects.These molecules consist of two parts: the sugar moiety called glucones and nesaharistoy - genin or aglycone.Under the influence of enzymes or by boiling with dilute acid glycosides are split.As glucone may comprise various monosaccharides, often glucose, sugar and sometimes specific to a free form not found in plants.The glycoside molecule may include one or more sugars.The more sugars in the molecule, the more unstable is glycosides.Therefore, in its glycoside composition of natural plants and medicinal raw materials may vary, as some of Sakharov during drying can be cleaved.
as genin glycosides contain a variety of compounds, what is the reason the character of action of these substances.Typically, there are less Genins glycosides.This is because the glucones glycosides causes better solubility in water and its absorption from the gastrointestinal tract into the blood.
glycosides - usually colorless crystalline substance of bitter taste, soluble in water, dilute alcohol.Seldom painted glycosides.Thus, glycosides rhubarb, buckthorn - antraglikozidy - have an orange color.
In medicine use plants containing glycosides different groups.Cardiac glycosides, which are Genins steroids contain digitalis, adonis spring, lily of the valley - essential for the treatment of various cardiovascular diseases.Fenologlikozidy bearberry leaves and cranberries in the body are broken down with the release of phenols having antimicrobial activity.Since these substances are formed in the kidney, the urinary tract, they are disinfected.Fenologlikozidy Rhodiola rosea (golden root) relieve mental and physical fatigue, and substances tricolor violets have expectorant action.Thioglycosides mustard seeds under the influence of an enzyme isolated strong irritant volatile mustard oil, mustard plasters that causes action.Antraglikozidy buckthorn, zhostera and some other plants are laxative.A special group is formed by saponins, aqueous solutions, with shaking, form a rich foam.Introduction into the blood causes hemolysis destruction) red blood cells, which is detrimental for the organism, and getting into the gastrointestinal tract, this effect is not caused, and have the most diverse therapeutic effect.Saponins cyanosis, for example, are good expectorants and calm the central nervous system.Often called bitter glycosides bitterness due to their bitter taste.They are used as a means of stimulating appetite and improving digestion.A special group consists of flavonoid glycosides, which have a variety of effects.
glycoalkaloids - related glycosides compounds in which Genin are the alkaloids.Such compounds found in plants that do not have a close relationship botanical.For example, the hellebore of the lily family, many plants of the nightshade family.So, in the grass nightshade lobular found glycoalkaloids solasolin and solamargin which when boiled with acids cleaved alkaloid SOLAS-Din.Last is the source of progesterone, from which the plants to produce hormones: cortisone, hydrocortisone, and numerous others.This method of drug called a semi-synthetic.
tannins or tannin, have astringent taste and are able to convert animal skin into tanned leather.It has long been used for the tanning of oak bark, making these agents and get their name.
In air, these substances are oxidized, forming flobafeny - products dyed brown and non-tanning properties.This explains the browning inside of the oak bark in drying, reddish-brown color of broth succession, and other plants.
isolated from plant tannins are amorphous or crystalline materials which are soluble in water and alcohol.With salts of heavy metals, they form sludge, and with the ferric salts - colored compounds.Precipitate mucus proteins, adhesive agents, alkaloids, making them incompatible with drugs.Since they are proteins form insoluble albuminates, based on which their applications in medicine (microbicide, anti-inflammatory action).This property does not have flobafeny, so drying raw materials containing tannin, must be done quickly to save the maximum number.
Fatty oils are esters of trihydric alcohol glycerol, and fatty acids.When boiling with alkali or by the action of enzymes (lipases) are split into fatty acids and glycerol.Recent form salts with alkali called soaps.The acids may be saturated and unsaturated.Limit - butyric, caproic, octanoic, decyl, lauric, myristic, palmitic and stearic;unsaturated - palmitoleic, oleic, linoleic, linolenic, arachidonic and others.
Unsaturated fatty acid oils, especially linoleic, linolenic (as well as arachidonic characteristic mainly for animal fats), - the essential nutrients in the metabolism, especially cholesterol.For example, they accelerate its excretion from the body, increase the efficiency of the choline lipotropic action, are the material from which prostaglandins are formed in the body.Therefore, the said group of substances sometimes referred to as vitamin ( "vitamin F»), however, vitamin nature of unsaturated acids is disputed by many researchers, and therefore they are now called indispensable or essential.
Coumarins - natural compounds, based on the chemical structure of which is coumarin or Isocost Marino.It also includes furokumariny and pyrano-coumarin.Coumarins are characteristic mainly for plant families umbrella, Rutaceae and legumes.Here they are predominantly in free form and rarely in the form of glycosides.
Depending on the chemical structure of coumarins have different physiological activity: some show antispasmodic action, while others - kapillyaroukreplyayuschee activity.There coumarin kurarepodobnymi, sedative, diuretic, anthelmintic, analgesic, antimicrobial and other activities.Some of them stimulate the central nervous system, reduce blood cholesterol, prevent the formation of blood clots in blood vessels and contribute to their dissolution.There coumarin, increase the skin's sensitivity to ultraviolet rays (they are used for the treatment of leykodermii), and koronarorasshiryayuschee bbladayuschie antispasmodic effect, accelerates healing of ulcers, stimulate respiration and increase blood pressure.
Some furokumariny delay cell division and thus possess anti-tumor activity.The most pronounced is in peutsedanina, Xan-totoksina and prangenina.These substances increase the effect of some chemical anticancer agents (sarkolizina, asalina et al.).
Trace elements found in vegetable and Ms
mals tissues in very small quantities (and thousandths of a percent lower, but in some cases - in hundredths and even tenths of a percent).Now account for such elements 60, 24 are part of the blood 30 contained in the milk.
Trace elements are very important in a person's life, as part of the hormones, vitamins, many enzymes, respiratory pigments, form compounds with proteins accumulate in certain organs and tissues, especially in the endocrine glands.It proved the role of iodine, cobalt and bromine in thyroid function.With a lack of cobalt is observed due to the growth of this gland neoplasms cells and prevents excess bromine iodine accumulation in it.
organic complexes of microelements are involved in metabolic processes, affecting growth and development, reproduction, blood formation.
Lack or excess of cobalt, copper, zinc, manganese, boron, molybdenum, nickel, strontium, lead, iodine, fluorine, selenium, and other leads to metabolic disorders and the emergence of a number of diseases (eg, vitamin deficiency B12 goiter, fluorosis, urovskoi disease).
Need trace elements and plants.For some species of plants to ensure their normal development, growth, protect against disease and insect infestation, enhance the frost resistance, accelerate flowering and fruiting in growing effectively applied to the soil together with the basic fertilizers and micronutrients - boron, manganese, molybdenum, copper, cobalt,lithium, nickel and others.
organic acids play an important role in the metabolism of plant substances are mainly transformation products of sugars, are involved in the biosynthesis of alkaloids, glycosides, amino acids and other biologically active compounds which mediate between the individual stages of metabolism of fats, proteins and carbohydrates.
The organic fruit acids are predominantly in free form, in the leaves and other plant organs dominated salts thereof.
acids are divided into two groups - the volatile and non-volatile.