Useful and therapeutic properties of marshmallow
family Malvaceae - Malvaceae
generic name derives from the Greek althos - drug, the species definition is translated from Latin means a pharmacy, which is associated with the use of plants.
Botanical description.Perennial herb, 60-150 cm tall, with short erect, many-headed rhizome, which depart from the adventitious roots.Stem erect, rounded.Leaves alternate, petiolate, in outline ovate, and three-lobed shape (bottom five lobes), young - velvety to the touch, as covered with numerous stellate hairs, causing leaves gray-green, older - green, as most of the hair disappears.The edge of the blade crenate-toothed.The flowers are pale pink, twisted in the axils of the upper and middle leaves.Calyx with epicalyx remains in fruit, corolla of five petals obovate, with a small notch ~.Many stamens fused into a tube, through which the column of the pistil.Anthers purple.Pestle with top multicavity one ovary.Fruit - Kalachik sitting at the bottom of the cup neopadayuschey.It looks like a disk and when ripe splits
blooms from June to September, the first fruits ripen in July.
Besides this type of harvest and the Armenian mallow - Althaea armeniaca Ten, which has a three- or pyatipalchatorazdelnye leaves and flowers collected at the top of the stem in racemose-paniculate inflorescence..
Geographical distribution.Althea officinalis grows in the steppe and forest steppe zones of the European part of the USSR, in the south of Western Siberia, Kazakhstan, parts of Central Asia and the Caucasus.Armenian - in the lower reaches of the Don and the Volga, in Kazakhstan, Central
Asia and the Caucasus.Both species are found along the banks of rivers, lakes, ponds, floodplain meadows.
Althaea officinalis is cultivated in the state farms of medicinal plants and apothecary gardens, which facilitates harvesting of raw materials.The Byelorussian SSR are grown in a number of areas.
collection and drying.Gather the roots in the fall, in September - October or early spring, and the plantations - the third - fourth year of culture.Plants dug with shovels, shake off the ground, cut off the aerial parts and roots removed thickness of 0.5-2 cm. Plantation plants plow plowed.Among the roots, usually at the center, is a thick root, which is woody and not subject to procurement.To save thickets remaining rhizome with thin roots are cut into 2-4 pieces and buried in the ground again.After 3 years, the new plants produce a lot of grass roots, suitable for harvesting.Do not use the entire rootstock for vegetative propagation, as in this case the roots are formed thin.
roots quickly washed with cold water, so as not washed up mucus provyalivayut outdoors under cover, then remove the plug blades, remove the tape along with the primary cortex.Secondary bark of this should be.Peeled roots are dried immediately (so they do not darken) in attics, under eaves or in the dryer at a temperature of 30-35 °.For the preparation of herbal medicines and crude harvest roots.
Besides roots for industrial purposes in the state farms and harvested herb marshmallow.
medicinal raw materials.Ready raw material - marshmallow root (Radix Althaeae) consists of pieces of the roots of a cylindrical shape or cut along the length of 35 cm, a thickness of 0.5 to 2 cm root surface covered with soft bast fibers and dark dots -. Footprints on the site of attachment of fine roots.Color marshmallow roots outside and break the white or yellowish-white, and the Armenian - grayish.The break in the center of granular rough on the outside - the fiber.When breaking the roots pylyat because they contain a lot of starch.The smell is weak, peculiar, taste sweet, slimy.
When wetted with a solution of ammonia roots acquire a yellow color (reaction on the mucus), a solution of iodine - are blue.
allows the moisture content of not more than 14%;Ash not more than 7%;woody roots no more than 3%;roots poorly treated by stoppers, not more than 3%;organic and mineral impurities not more than 0.5%.
chemical composition.The root contains polysaccharides: up to 35% and 37% of mucus starch amide aspartic acid (asparagine), betaine, sugar, pectin, somewhat greasy oils, etc. The mucus is a mixture of pentosans and hexosans which upon hydrolysis form pentose and dextrose..mucus solution in "water viscosity significantly higher than the solutions of gelatin, starch paste, or a protein of the same concentration
action and the use of Slime alteynogo root -.. Mucilago Althaeae has enveloping effect Covering a thin layer of inflamed or damaged tissue surface, it protects the sensitive nerve endings.from exposure to irritants, it has antiemetic and protivoponosnoe action. by lowering the absorption of intestinal bacterial toxins, reduces or removes the effects of intoxication.
mucus marshmallow taken orally as an expectorant, enveloping, softening and anti-inflammatory agent in diseases of the upper respiratory tract.
Forpreparation of medicines other than root using the dry and liquid extracts.
marshmallow syrup (Sirupus Althaeae) introduced in medicine to improve their taste and as the coating agent. If necessary, it is made from two pieces of dry extract of marshmallow and 98 pieces of sugar syrup.
applied as an expectorant, especially in pediatric practice, mukaltin tablets are a mixture of polysaccharides from medicinal herbs marshmallow.
Marshmallow root is a part of a series of charges prescribed for bronchitis, emphysema, cardiac asthma, gastric ulcer, ulcerative colitis, constipation, acute glomerulonephritis, acute laryngitis, and others.