Useful and therapeutic properties of arnica ( mountain sheep )
family Asteraceae (Asteraceae) -Asteraceae
generic name derives from the Greek arnos - sheep, as when ripe fruits are formed fluffy crests, similar to the coat of the animal, the species definition is translated from Latin means
«rock» (on habitatin Western Europe).
Botanical description.Perennial herb with horizontal weakly branched rhizome.The top of it is lifted and becomes elevated erect rounded stem height of 25-50 cm, the top covered with hairs.Lower leaves form a rosette, are located in four major land crosswise, stem - opposite, generally in an amount of two pairs, lanceolate, entire, top - glandular-pubescent, bottom - naked.The flowers are orange, boundary - reed, the middle - tubular, are collected in baskets.The first flowers bloom apex baskets, flowers baskets and then in the opposite tops of shoots, which are formed in the axils of upper leaves.Fruit - achene with a tuft of dirty-white hair.
Flowers in June - July, the fruits ripen in July - the first half of August.
Geographical distribution.Arnica mountain - Western European view.In the USSR it is found in the Carpathians, mostly above 500 meters above sea level.On the plains it grows rare and scattered in small amounts in Belarus, in the south of the Lithuanian SSR, at least in Latvia.
Included in the Red Book, harvesting of wild plants is limited.
Along with mountain arnica are allowed to use leafy arnica - Arnica foliosa Nutt.and Chamisso arnica - Arnica chamissonis Less.Both less hygrophilous, found in the steppe regions of North America.Baskets from arnica Chamisso smaller, but due to significant branching stalk them more than the mountain arnica.Both of these easily cultivated.
collection and drying.Collect flower baskets at the beginning of flowering, when the reed flowers are facing upwards.When the bloom axillary baskets, produce an additional fee.Tearing the basket, hold the stem of the left hand, so as not to damage the plant.Peduncles than 3 cm was removed.For seed multiplication 3-5 leaves of plants.Do not make the third collection, when the basket bloom axillary in the axils of lower leaves of the stem.
Dried material in a dryer at a temperature of 55-60 ° or in attics, and then kept in a furnace 20 to 30 minutes to kill insect eggs.
medicinal raw materials.Ready raw material - arnica flowers - (Flores Arnicae) baskets diameter of 3 cm, with edge and reed flowers remnants stems up to 3 cm, or without them.If the reed flowers showered, tro baskets have a diameter of 1 cm. Involucre baskets bell-shaped, two-row, consisting of oblong-lanceolate, pointed, greenish-brown leaves.Receptacle slightly convex, pitted, with short bristly bracts around the pits.Boundary ligulate pistillate orange-yellow flowers in the amount of 14-20, shriveled in the form of threads, after macerating find 3 cloves, tubular - quinquedentate.Ovary lower, hairy tufted brittle thin bristles.Permissible impurity separated flowers and individual receptacle.The smell is weak, aromatic, pungent taste, bitter.
Art.187 GF IX and GOST 13399-67 admit: moisture less than 13%;total ash is not more than 9%;shredded pieces, passing through a sieve with a hole diameter of 2 mm and not more than 6%;Organic impurities are not more than 2%;mineral - no more than 1%.Moreover, the State Standard extractives extracted with 70% alcohol, should be at least 25%.
chemical composition.It contains up to 4% arnitsina (a mixture of two triterpendiolov), 0.016% essential oil, carotenoids (zeaxanthin, etc.), crystalline substance arnifolin (ester sesquiterpene oksiketolaktona) tsinarin, tanning veschestra, inulin, choline, mucus, organic acids, resinous substances,21 mg% ascorbic acid, flavonoids (astragalin, izokvertsitrin, derivatives of quercetin).
action and application.The presence of a variety of biologically active substances in the flowers determines the different pharmacological properties of the raw material.
Arnifolin has a hemostatic effect with uterine bleeding.Formulations of arnica have a stimulating effect on the central nervous system, and in large doses - a sedative, hypotensive and anticonvulsant, increases the amplitude of heart rate, dilate the coronary vessels, improving blood supply to the heart muscle.Flavonoids and tsinarin expanding brain vessels, have a choleretic effect and lowers blood cholesterol.
essential oil has bactericidal properties and contributes to the together with the carotenoids damaged tissue regeneration, anti-inflammatory action.
infusion of arnica flowers ('10 per 200 ml of water) is assigned to 1 tablespoon 3 times a day with milk as a uterine hemostatic agent postpartum bleeding related to endocrine disorders, inflammatory diseases of the female genital organs.Together with other agents useful infusion after stroke.
externally in the form of compresses, wet dressings, and lotions infusion is used for bruises, bruises, carbuncles, boils and abscesses as the resolving and anti-inflammatory agent.