Useful and therapeutic properties of Berberis vulgaris
family Berberidaceae - Berberidaceae
generic name derives from the Arabic beri - shell, which characterizes the shape of the petals.Species definition is translated from Latin means "common".
Botanical description.Barberry - deciduous thorns.Shoots angular, young - yellow or yellowish-purple, then they acquire a brownish-gray color.Leaves petiolate, collected in bunches on short shoots, back-ovate or elliptic, up to 4 cm and a width of 2 cm, the top sheet of rounded or pointed.The edge of the leaf blade sharp-toothed palmate.Kinks transformed into soft needles.The leaves are bluish-green top, bottom lighter.Spines are usually tripartite length of 1-3 cm. The flowers are yellow, collected in the drooping hand at the tips of short shoots. "The corolla is composed of 6 petals, at the base of each of them, there are 2 nectary, petaloid sepals. Stamens 6, pistil one, with short style. and the top unilocular ovary fruit - oblong-elliptical red berry sour taste up to 1.2 cm Seeds oblong, slightly flattened a
Barberry blossoms in May - June,.. fruits ripen in August - October, autumn leaves.become yellow or red. The berries are very long stored in the branches, sometimes throughout the winter.
Geographical distribution. barberry known for a long time. As a fruit, particularly medicinal, plant was used in Egypt as early as the VII century BC. in Europe, barberrywas inducted into the culture from the XIV century.
in the wild berberis vulgaris grows from the south of Leningrad region to Crimea, the Caucasus and the Volga region.Grown in gardens, squares, parks in the vast territory of Arkhangelsk to the Far East.The BSSR wild plants Berberis vulgaris found in Polissya.Barberry grows wild Amur in the Far East, pubescent
Cams forests and rocky shores of mountain rivers.In the culture of almost the entire territory of the USSR - from Kaliningrad to Khabarovsk.
barberry winter-hardy and drought-resistant.
collection and drying.In barberry ordinary raw materials are the roots that serve to produce the alkaloid berberine, and leaves.The blank leaves produce spring during flowering.They break off his hands, being careful not to damage the branches.Dry in shade (under canopy, in the attic).
The roots are harvested in the fall, when they are most rich in alkaloids.To preserve the natural thickets of barberry roots billet produced at the same place in 5-10 years.Dig no more than 1/3 of the roots, leaving untouched the rest of the root system.In places subject to soil erosion, harvesting the roots do not produce.Dug out the roots should not be washed, but only shake them from their land.Dry in a well-ventilated attics, sheds or other shaded areas.It is also possible to produce dried in a dryer at a temperature not exceeding to 50 °.The dried roots are packed in bales, which are stored in a dry, shaded and regularly ventilated room.
medicinal raw materials.Barberry Root - Radix Berberidis by FS 42-1152-78 characterized by the following properties and numerical indicators: Solid, nearly cylindrical pieces of woody roots up to 20 cm, a thickness of no more than 6 cm, brownish-gray, coarse fiber, on a break lemon yellow.The smell is weak, peculiar, taste bitter.The moisture content of not more than 12%;total ash not more than 5%;roots blackened on a break, - 5%;organic impurities less than 1%;berberine content of not less than 9.5%.
leaf barberry ordinary - Folium Berberidis consists of whole leaves a distinctive smell, sour taste.FS 42-536-72 allows the moisture content of not more than 14%;Ash not more than 5%;shredded pieces, passing through a sieve with a hole diameter of 3 mm and not more than 5%;leaves lost green color, no more than 4%;barberry other parts not more than 1%;Organic impurities are not more than 2%;mineral impurities are not more than 1%.alkaloid content should be not less than 0.15%.
chemical composition.Barberry fruits contain sugars, organic acids (malic, tartaric, citric), 0.4-0.6% pectin, tannin and coloring matter, vitamin C, flavonoids and phenolic acids.The fruit and leaves are also found lutein and vitamin K (0,24-0,80 mg / 100 g).Painting of fruit due mainly pelargonidin-3-glnzhozidom.The vegetative organs barberry found furokumariny.
bark, roots, shoots, seeds, leaves and immature fruits contain alkaloids.In mature fruit they are not, or are contained in small amounts.
in various organs found alkaloids differ in chemical structure and effect on the body.Among HHX - berberine, oksiberberin, Pal-Matin, tetragidropalmatin, barbamin and oksiakantin.The various organs of Berberis vulgaris contains 10 alkaloids, mainly refers to isoquinoline series, among them the main place belongs to berberine.
action and application.Acidic fruits of barberry stimulate appetite, enhance the secretion of gastric juice quench thirst in febrile patients, they can be used as a guide and kapillyaroukreplya-protivoskleroticheskim means rich in flavonoids and phenolic acids.
Berberine has diverse effects on the human body: lowers blood pressure, has a calming effect, slows the heart rate, increases the separation of bile.Phenolic acids barberry have choleretic, diuretic second anti-inflammatory action.Berberine bisulfate tablets used for liver and biliary tract, as well as an infusion of leaves in '10 and 200 ml of water, which take 1 tablespoon 3-4 times a day before meals.
Tincture of leaves barberry ordinary - Tinctura Berberidis causes contraction of smooth muscles of the uterus and vasoconstriction, several accelerates blood clotting, has a mild choleretic effect.Appointed 30-40 drops 2-3 times a day for atonic uterine bleeding and subinvolution.