Useful and therapeutic properties of Valeriana officinalis
valerian family - Valerianaceae
generic name - the ancient name of the plant that was apparently from the Latin verb valere - be healthy.Species definition is translated from Latin means chemist.
Botanical description.Perennial herb with a vertical short rhizome and numerous adventitious roots, digging out after having a smell.Stems are erect, ribbed, hollow inside, height of 50-
150 (200) cm. The leaves are opposite, pinnate-lobed with lanceolate segments.Edge segments serrate or rarely entire.The flowers are small, with a subtle pleasant aroma, white or pale pink, gathered in corymbose semiumbels (dichasia) on top of the stem and in the axils of upper leaves.Calyx with a faint wrapped into sepals, which grow after flowering in the crest.Corolla funnel-shaped with a blunt contour five-blade, slightly wrong, 3 protruding from the corolla, stamens.Pistil 1, with the lower three-blade unilocular ovary and stigma.Fruit - achene brown, flat, bearing feathery tuft on the top of the 10 bases fused spinous
Flowers in June - July;fruits ripen in July - September.
Entitled "Valeriana officinalis" means collective species, including various species: ocherednolistny, Volga, magnificent or splendid, marsh, pobegonosnuyu, dubious, and many others.They are distinguished by the nature of tillering, leaf-shaped segments, their number and other autonomic features.Almost all of them are used in medicine.
Geographical distribution.Valerian growing on peat swamps, and grassy, swampy and wet meadows, along the banks of ponds and ditches, among bushes, in forest clearings.It occurs in the European part of the USSR but the steppe regions and ocherednolistny - in Siberia (on the Yenisei River to the mouth of the Amur River and south of Primorye Territory).
wild valerian is not enough, so it is cultivated in Belarus, Voronezh, Moscow, Novosibirsk and Kirov regions, Moldova, Krasnodar Krai.The main areas of the workpiece are located in Ukraine and Belarus, in Krasnodar Krai, Rostov and Ulyanovsk regions in specialized farms and gardens with pharmaceutical pharmacies.The seeds quickly lose its germination, why use only fresh.Sow them in late July - early August or under the winter in moist soil (preferably choose low-lying areas close to the groundwater).Sowing produce square-cluster method with a width between rows 40 cm. Collection of raw materials produced in this sowing the following year in the month of July.
This valerian does not have time to bloom, forming a powerful rosette of leaves, and the yield obtained maximum.
Late spring sowing yield negligible and plants have to leave in the second year.In this case, they bloom.The formation of the stem with leaves, flowers and fruits of the plant and then spends a lot of organic matter, mother rhizomes die, instead they formed subsidiaries, small in size, causing the yield is reduced.
To prevent the plants to flower, produce several different over the summer vershkovanie, ie remove the tip of the stem, plucking it.
In early spring sowing the seeds subjected to pre-stratification, which they moistened, mixed with 3 times the amount of wet sand and put the boxes with a mixture of snow under a month.In the spring before planting the mixture is dried in a warm room and stored until planting in the cold.
With summer sowing fresh seeds preplant treatment of seeds is excluded.
collection and drying.Collect rhizomes with roots in the autumn after the ripening of the fruit, usually from July - August or early spring.Plants dug with shovels, and swamps - forks (plantations plowed plows), shake off the ground, then cut the entire aboveground part, thick rhizomes cut lengthwise into 2-4 pieces, trying to keep the roots.Halves rhizomes and roots divide, again shake the ground and quickly washed and then rinsed with water.In the uncut thick rhizomes and roots-always preserved land, which increases the content of mineral impurities.When harvesting raw materials from wild plants prefer those plants that do not bloom.The hole formed during digging, fruit shake, to this place again increased valerian.Subject to the rules of this alternation of blanks can be produced in a year.
The collected materials are left in a well-ventilated room for withering (available in boxes with perforated walls) or spread out a layer of no more than 15 cm and periodically ted.At the same enzymatic processes take place, and the roots become strong peculiar smell.After that, the raw material
transferred to attics, in a well-ventilated barns, sheds a nd dried up until they become brittle.When drying in a dryer temperature must not exceed 35-40 °.The dried raw materials stacked in piles and left for several days.Due to the hygroscopic properties of the roots absorb moisture (as they say, "depart"), cease to be brittle, which does not create an increased fineness in packaging.To reduce the content of mineral impurities in the case of high content of sand, earth, peat and so on. N., The dried raw material is sifted through a sieve.Withered and dried valerian should be out of reach for cats, which is a stimulant and can cause significant damage to the raw materials, contaminating it and rastaskivaya.
Medicinal raw materials - valerian rhizomes with roots (Rhizoma cum radicibus Valerianae) - short vertical rhizome 2-4 cm long, with a loose core or hollow cross-partitions corresponding to the nodes of the modified underground stem.The large roots are often cut into 2 or 4 parts.Rhizomes depart from numerous fine adventitious roots from 6 to 15 cm and a length of 1-3 mm in diameter.Outside the roots yellowish-brown to light brown fracture.The smell is strong, kind;taste spicy, sweet-bitter.
Art.GPC 583 allows the moisture content of no more than 16%;Ash not more than 14%;rhizomes stem from residues longer than 1 cm and no longer than 2 cm is not more than 3%;Organic impurities are not more than 0.5%;mineral impurities are not more than 3%;extractives extracted with 70% alcohol, at least 25%.
medicinal raw material obtained from cultivated plants, has a more long roots and a strong odor.Weight of roots compared with the weight of the rhizome is much greater than that of the raw material derived from wild plants, causing the percentage of essential oil is higher.
chemical composition.Rhizomes with the roots of valerian contain 0.5-2% essential oil, the main component of which is alcohol ester borneol and isovaleric acid.In addition, it provides free isovaleric acid and borneol, borneol esters of formic, acetic,
oil and other acids, mirtenol, pinene, kam-dryer, terpineol, limonene and other terpenoids.Discovered as an alkaloid aktinidin as hydroxy-phenyl ethyl salt (fresh leaves and roots contain alkaloids still Valerín and hatinin).There are unexplored valerid glycoside, tannins, sugar.The roots contain much more essential oil than the roots.
Unlike other raw materials from valerian is not the main active ingredient.The action on the body is due to a complex of biologically active compounds, although stronger than all components act on the body of its essential oil.
action and application.Preparations of valerian have a sedative, antispasmodic, and mild choleretic effect.Previously we believed that the calming effect of valerian is associated with increased inhibitory processes in the cerebral cortex.However, it found that it acts on the subcortical structures, in particular the rising catalytic Sirte reticular formation of the brain stem, lowering its activity.Therefore, valerian medications widely used to treat neuroses of various somatic diseases associated with increased excitability.They enhance the effect of hypnotics, antipsychotics, antispasmodics and bromides.Valerian
administered as infusion (25-30 drops per dose), and dry extracts in thick pellets (1 - 2 pills 3 times), and the infusion rate of 10.0 g per 200 ml of water.B. E. Votchal recommends to use it as a tea: 8-10, the crushed root pour a glass of boiling water and hermetically sealed.Cool, filter and take 1/2 cup at night for insomnia;or drink the contents of the cup during the day (with irritable).
Even better prepare the infusion in a thermos.
rhizome with the roots of valerian is part of the fees prescribed for insomnia, nervousness, neurasthenia, sciatica, menopause, epilepsy, tachycardia, hypertension, atherosclerosis, myocarditis, sclerosis, ahilii, acute gastritis, gastric ulcer and duodenal ulcer, ulcerative colitis.