Useful and therapeutic properties of the common oak
beech family - Fagaceae
generic name is common in many ancient authors, and, apparently, comes from the Celtic word meaning beautiful tree, species determination - the Latin name of the oak.
Botanical description.Long-lived deciduous tree with spreading crown spherical, reaches a height of 40 m. The bark of the trunk and the old shoots with deep cracks, brown-gray.The leaves are alternate, at the ends of shoots close together in pairs, on short petioles, obovate in outline and pinnatilobate form.The blades are rounded, blunt.The leaves are bare, above - green, shiny, below - lighter.Staminal in thin drooping catkins, pistillate 1-3, sitting on a slender stalk.Fruit - egg-shaped acorn sitting on the bottom chashechkovidnoy woody involucre, which is formed from the swollen perianth.
Blossoms oak together with the opening of leaves in late April - early May;fruits ripen in September - early October.
Geographical distribution.Widely distributed in the band and broad-leaved forests hvoynoshirokolistvenny
main areas blanks - in Belarus, Ukraine, Bashkiria and Krasnodar Territory.
In some regions of Ukraine, the North Caucasus and the Crimea found sessile oak - Quercus petraea Liebl, applied on a par with common oak..
collection and drying.The blank is subject only to the smooth bark of young branches, first olive-brown, later silver-gray, lustrous, the so-called mirror.Bark having a crack stopper contains many, but few active substances and is not suitable for use.
preform bark needs to be coordinated with forestry, which point to the place of the spring tree felling or sanitary cleaning.Harvest time must coincide with the period of sap flow - from April to June.At this time, the crust contains many active ingredients and is easily separated from timber as cambium cells swell.On young branches make circular cuts at a distance of at least 3 cm from each other, and then connect them to one or two lengthwise, and remove the crust in the form of grooves.If you peel it immediately fails, then the notch flip wooden mallet - a stick.The harvested bark is folded loosely in bags, baskets and sent for drying.
dried bark of the attic with good ventilation under the eaves, laying a thin layer on a litter or gauze hammocks.In the first case the bark is stirred periodically.In the absence of rains bark can be dried in the sun, but at night it is made under the roof.Drying was terminated when the crust becomes brittle.A quick and proper drying the inside of the bark becomes yellowish-brown or even better a light brown color.Takai's crust contains more active ingredients.
medicinal raw materials.The finished raw materials - oak bark (Cortex Quercus) consists of tubular pieces circumvallate or, more rarely in the form of narrow strips of different length, 2-3 mm thick.The outer surface of a light-brown or light gray, silver, shiny, matte less frequently visible laterally elongated lenticels.The inner surface is yellowish-brown with numerous prominent longitudinal ribs.Fracture outwards granular, fibrous inside, splintery.Odor from dried bark is absent, but soaking in water, particularly when pouring the hot water, there is a characteristic smell peculiar fresh bark.Taste strongly astringent.
decoction of the bark of 1: 100 with a solution of ferric alum gives a black-and-blue color.
Art.GF 184 X admits a moisture content of not more than 15%;Ash not more than 8%;bark pieces darkened with the inner surface, not more than 5%;bark pieces 4 mm thick but not thicker than 6 mm - not more than 5%;organic, mineral impurities not more than 1% and pieces of bark less than 3 cm of not more than 3%.
chemical composition.Oak bark contains 10-20% mainly hydrolysable tannins, 1.6% gallic and ellagic acids, flobafen, conditioning color concoctions, there flavonols, catechins, pectins, pentosans and others.
action and application.Tannins Oak substances have the same mechanism of action as that of the mountaineer snake.The bark is used as an astringent and anti-inflammatory agent in diseases of the oral cavity:. Gingivitis, stomatitis, ulcers, etc. amfodentoze Burns make gadgets.At the same time on the burn surface to form insoluble albuminates film that prevents the penetration of microbes that protects against chemical irritants that promotes tissue regeneration.It is also recommended to rinse with glossitis and pharyngitis.
Appointed as a decoction of raw materials in '20 by 200 ml of water for rinsing and lotions.Works well when oral diseases saline oak bark decoction: 15 g of raw material to 150 ml of water with 2 g aluminum potassium sulfate and 15 g of glycerol.
the treatment of burns, bedsores are sometimes used (in the form of lotions) more concentrated decoction, which is prepared from 30-35, the bark to 1 cup of water.
wiping decoction of the bark give a good effect for Athlete's Foot.