Useful and therapeutic properties of ginseng
family Araliaceae - Araliaceae
generic name derives from the Greek - the all-healing.The specific definition of the modified Chinese names jen - man and chen - root, because of the similarity of some roots with man.
Botanical description.A perennial herb, reaching the age of 200 years or more.Groundwater bodies are presented short vertical rhizome, from which extends a rod, branched, succulent root of a pale yellow color.Root rarely grows vertically.Most often it is tilted to the earth's surface at 30-45 degrees, which should be considered when transplanting seedlings.Stem erect 30-70 cm tall, bearing a whorl of four (sometimes three or five) leaves.Leaves petiolate, pyatipalcha-toslozhnye, similar to the leaves of horse chestnut;elliptic leaves with pointed tip and wedge-shaped base, serrate edge.Petioles and stems with purple-red tint.In the third year of the life of the plant whorl grows flower arrow.It ends with a simple umbrella nondescript small greenish flowers, which are formed from a bright r
for ginseng is characteristic of a very slow development.Seeds germinate only after its 18-22 months after the autumn sowing.This is due to underdevelopment of the embryo in them.In the first year produced only one trifoliate leaf, then the number of leaves increases to two, three, and adult plants - even up to five.Great connoisseur of ginseng biology prof.
IV Grushvitsky indicates that the resumption of the kidney, of which every year develops escape, laid on top of the rhizome in the two years ahead.But wild plants spring stem is formed not always.Sometimes he does not develop because the kidney is disturbed by deer hoof past taiga, or for any other reason, then ginseng "falls asleep.""Dream" lasts one or two, and sometimes tens of years, and when "awakened" one of the dormant buds, development and growth of the plant continues.
Flowers in July.The fruits ripen in August - September.
Geographical distribution.Wild ginseng is found mainly in coniferous-deciduous forests, sometimes with an admixture of fir and spruce, at least - in oak and hornbeam forests with an admixture of aspen, maple, ash and linden trees in the Far East - Primorsky and the southern part of the Khabarovsk Territory, often on the east and westthe slopes of the hills.The plant prefers loose in the forest, rich in humus, moderate soil moisture.It does not tolerate direct sunlight and therefore never found in open places.This is due to the fact that small stomata on the lower side of the sheet is unable to regulate the temperature regime the sun.It grows singly or in small groups ( "families").The latter arise as a result of the spread of fruit ginseng birds.
.Ginseng - a rare, endangered species included in the Red Book of the USSR.Cultivated in the farm "Ginseng" Primorsky Territory;Teberda in the Caucasus, where he works in this direction AA Malyshev, proving the feasibility of growing ginseng under the canopy of beech forest;in Belarus, the Moscow region and other regions of our country.Many amateur gardeners have started to grow this plant in their backyards.
«Seeds» ginseng need to prepare before planting so that they developed embryo.To do this, generate a warm and cold stratification.Initially mixed "seeds" with sand in the ratio 1: 3, the mixture is moistened and left in a room at a temperature of 15-20 ° for 4 months (from January to October).As the evaporation of water is added.Then serpents transferred to a refrigerator, where is kept for 4 months
(February to May).Humidity in both cases the mixture should be approximately 15%.Before sowing
stratified "seeds" to reveal bone disinfected in 1% suspension (slurry) or copper oxychloride in 0.5% potassium permanganate solution for 15 minutes.Spring sown soil at a temperature of about 15 ° C and humidity not more than 10%.Shoots appear in the same year on 20 to 25 day.In winter, their legs are covered with spruce or other rot-material, and after 1 - 2 years old are transplanted to a pre-prepared and arranged from west to east ridge width of 1 m, a height of 25 to 35 cm distance between the rows -. 1 m.The soil is prepared sheet-rotted compost or humus and land as fertilizer is made of potassium sulfate (15 g / m2) and superphosphate (37.5 g / m2).
seedlings planted in rows 20 cm in rows 25 cm in width, with its slanted root and tip of the rhizome with bud covering the ground (4-5 cm).Ridges with seedlings and transplanted plants shade the wooden shields height of 1 to 1.5 meters, shot down from thin planks width of 5 cm and the gap between them in the 2-3 cm, as solid significantly reduce the temperature of the soil and air.Panels mounted on poster obliquely.In autumn, when the stalks die, they are collected and burned, and the panels removed and cleaned until the following spring.
In the first years of life Ginseng susceptible to fungal diseases and occasionally be sprayed with a suspension of copper oxychloride and watered periodically pink solution of potassium permanganate.Soil moisture should be moderate - about 50-60%, as even short-term waterlogging or drying of ginseng can not stand.
addition, ginseng root, without a stalk and leaves "grow" on special nutrient media.This unusual method called culture of isolated tissue.Unfortunately, a root grown in such conditions is not always standard for the content of biologically active substances both qualitatively and quantitatively compared with the root, grown on beds, but it is possible to think that, over time, scientists will make it produce the desired substancethe required quantities.In the meantime, a root used for the manufacture of perfumes and beauty products, such as cream zhenypenevogo.
Along with its related ginseng plant are used in medicine, related to the same family: Aralia elata (Manchu) - Aralia elata (Miq.) Seem.(= A mandschurica Rupr et Maxim...), Aralia cordata (Schmidt) - A. corddta Thunb.(. = A. schmidtii Pojark), devil's - Oplopanax elatus Nakai (= Echinopdnax elatus Nakai) and Eleutherococcus-Eleu-therococcus senticosus (Rupr et Maxim..) Maxim.
collection and drying.The preform wild ginseng produced under license from people who know the collection technique.Dig out the roots weighing not less than '10 and pass them to the collection points fresh.These roots are called white.They are not subject to long-term storage and are recycled.For unauthorized ebor ginseng in the forest with the offenders will be charged roots tenfold.Established an annual limit on the collection of wild roots.Trading the maturity of the roots occurs within 25-30 years of the life of the plant.
Plantations roots dig in 5-8 years of age, pass fresh or canned them, surviving on pairs heated to 80 0 C water for an hour, and dried in the shade for at least one - two months, until they are completely solid, a light brown color.These roots are called red.They can be stored for many years.
medicinal raw materials.Ready raw material - ginseng root - Radix Ginseng - consists of a taproot - "body", the rhizome - "neck", thick and thin lateral roots - "processes".Quality wild fresh root is regulated by GOST 100064-62 and cultivated - GOST 23938- 79. Export root analyzed OST fault SNK 351. The last setting for the raw 27 varieties, which are combined into four classes.
chemical composition.Ginseng root contains saponins seven - panaksozidov, which are designated by the initial letters of the alphabet.At the heart of Genin these glycosides are steroid compounds similar to terpenes.In addition, the root found panaxic acid, Panax (ginzenin), pectin, phosphates, vitamins C, B, and B2, traces of essential oil, which determines the peculiar odor of the root.
Aralia root contains three triterpene Sapo
Ninove glycoside - aralosides, which are derived from oleanolic acid.The rhizome is rich in saponins ehinoksozidami devil, the chemical structure close to panaksozidam ginseng.The roots and rhizomes of Eleutherococcus saponins do not contain.Biologically active substances of this plant - seven glycosides lignanovoy groups called eleu-terozidami.
action and application.Ginseng - tonic - reduces fatigue and increases efficiency, has adaptogenic and immune-stimulating properties.Adaptogenic substances help a person adapt to new climate conditions of weightlessness, disease and so on. N. These properties are associated with panaksozidami ginseng, which enhance the body's resistance to harmful physical, chemical and biological factors.It expressed their immunostimulatory effect in stimulating antibody production, accompanied by increase in the amount of total protein and gamma-globulin levels.Panax zidy-stimulate hematopoiesis, almost two times increase the biosynthesis of nucleic acids, proteins, and fats in the bone marrow, increased mitotic activity of bone marrow cells.These glycosides possess radioprotective effect both in domestic (inkorpo-diet) and for external exposure to ionizing radiation, promote the excretion of incorporated bone strontium-90, which appears to be associated with increased metabolism of calcium in the bones.This also applies to other radioactive isotopes.The protective effect is evident not only in the prophylactic administration of ginseng before gamma-irradiation, but when administered some time after irradiation.
Biologically active substances of ginseng polysaccharides reduce the absorption, enhance glycogen re-synthesis and high-energy phosphates.The tendency to accelerate the restoration of the blood albumin posthemorrhagic period, increasing the overall reactivity of the body, beneficial effect on the function of the endocrine glands.In particular, ginseng drugs increase sexual excitability and have a positive effect for impotence.
In small doses panaksozidy stimulate vaso-motor and respiratory centers of the medulla of the brain
and large, on the contrary, cause their oppression.Most clinicians believe ginseng means of stimulating the central nervous system and the breadth of therapeutic action is much superior to amphetamine.However, in large doses, ginseng has not exciting, and sedation.Some researchers believe that under the influence of ginseng preparations shown a very good effect in improving the health of people engaged in intellectual work.In particular, increases in productivity and improved night-time memory.
Panax, panaksozidy and panaxic acid reduce blood sugar to normal levels, accelerate the synthesis of glycogen from glucose.Like insulin they accelerate synthesis The lipids in the liver and contribute to their accumulation in fatty tissues.There is evidence that ginseng is not only inhibits the emergence of excess cholesterol in the blood, and is a good preventive measure in atherosclerosis.Under the influence of drugs increases the absorption of methionine in the liver and accelerates its transition to albumin serum, liver tissue is stimulated breathing and the brain and, therefore, their oxygen consumption increases.
Ginseng strengthens the contraction of the heart, normalizes blood pressure.
Ginseng tincture - Tinctura Ginseng - used 15-20 drops before meals as a tonic in various forms of fatigue, hypotension, fatigue, fatigue, neurasthenia, hypogonadal as radioprotective agent and as an extra in the treatment of heart disease and diabetes.Some doctors believe that the treatment of diabetes Ginseng is as effective as insulin.More effective is the appointment of the tincture in autumn and winter than in spring and summer.
ginseng preparations are non-toxic and virtually harmless.They do not have the absolute, from a medical point of view, contraindications, but despite the fact that under the influence of ginseng reduced blood pressure, it should not be administered in hypertension, especially during the summer heat, as well as in other cases at this time.The course of treatment lasts ginseng
30-40 days, then make a two-week break and repeat the course again.When asthenic conditions of treatment effect is slow, sometimes after 2-3 courses.
ginseng drugs do not cause insomnia, irritability, restlessness, as it is inherent in his substitutes - Aralia plants.
should be remembered that in the treatment of ginseng is contraindicated use of alcoholic beverages.Manufactured in Korea zhenypenevaya vodka with a little root in the bottle is not intended for medical purposes.
Previously in China ginseng attributed properties to extend human life and to return the youth and therefore the search in the forest root of this miracle took place over 4000 years.The root of it was valued more than gold.
exhibit similar effect Aralia drugs devil and Eleutherococcus, but they do not have the ability to lower blood pressure.
Aralia root of the high (and in the absence of his - rhizome devil) is part of the collection arfazetina appointed for the prevention and treatment of diabetes (see blueberries.).This collection of commercially packaged in plastic bags of 10 g To prepare the contents of the package is placed in an enamel bowl, pour 400 ml (2 cups) of hot boiled water and heated in boiling water (for water bath) for 15 minutes, insisting at room temperatureat least 45 min and filter.
remaining raw materials squeeze.The volume of the resulting infusion was adjusted with boiled water to 400 ml.Inside for 30 minutes before a meal, preferably in the form of heat in 1/3 - 1/2 cup 2-3 times a day for 20-30 days.After 10-15 days of treatment is recommended to repeat.During the year, 3-4 courses.
Eleutherococcus has immunostimulatory activity and is particularly indicated for people living in areas with high radiation levels somewhat.Drink it in the autumn-winter 30-40 drops half an hour before a meal.Simultaneously, during or after meals appointed multivitamin preparations containing vitamins A, C, F and Group B. Useful and pectins, which are introduced into the diet in the form of canned or fresh fruits and vegetables.