Useful and therapeutic properties of centaury ordinary ( small or umbrella )
gentianaceae family - Gentianaceae
generic name given to a plant in the Middle Ages, is derived from two Latin words: centum - one hundred and aurum - gold, that is, plant, worth a hundred gold coins.Species definition is derived from the Greek erythros - red, given the color of flowers.In
synonyms minus - small, because of the small height of the plants, a umbellatum - umbrella - shaped inflorescence.
Botanical description.Biennial or annual herb with a thin taproot.Stem erect, four-sided, bottom unbranched, up to 40 cm lower leaves collected in the rosette, obovate, tapering into petiole with five arched veins, stem -. Are opposite, elliptical and pointed-elliptical, sessile, with three arched main veins.Flowers yarkorozovye, with thin yellowish corolla tube and five-blade flat contour.Collected in corymbose semiumbels (dichasia).Five stamens, pistil with a superior ovary.Fruit - narrow, oblong capsule, dehiscing by two valves.
Flowers in June - August.The fruits ripen in August - September.
Geographical distribution.It grows in wet meadows, including flood, forest clearings among the shrubs, on fallow lands, and sometimes on the slopes of hills and mountains.Distributed in the European part of the USSR, in the Caucasus and Central Asia.The northern boundary of the area passes through the city of Leningrad, Vologda, Ufa, east - along the Volga.In Belarus uncommon, but it does not form undergrowth.
collection and drying.Collect the entire aboveground part of the plant during the flowering period, yet not radical leaves turned yellow.When collecting the cut stems with a knife to the ground, so that got a rosette of leaves.If the leaves have turned yellow, cut off the stem at the level of the lower stem leaves.
dried in the shade, often in attics, tying grass in small bundles by hanging them or laying a thin layer of grass.
medicinal raw materials.Ready raw material - grass centaury (Herba Centaurii) contains stems and leaves, flowers, but without roots, often associated in bundles.The thickness of the beams in the ground a bunch of 5-6 cm, the length of the stems up to 25 cm. The leaves are 3-5 cm. Calyx spine-sheeted, quinquedentate.Corolla gvozdevidny, pink, tinged with violet.
Odor absent, taste bitter.
FS 42-1244-79 allows the moisture content of not more than 14%;Ash not more than 7%;yellowed and blackened flowers no more than 5%;stems without leaves no more than 3%;plants with roots and inalienable individual roots no more than 2%;organic and mineral impurities are not more than 1%.
Instead centaury often inexperienced collectors collect Dianthus deltoides - Dianthus deltoides L., whose leaves are also opposite, but the narrow back-lanceolate to pinnate venation, bottom rough-hairy.The flowers are pink-red at the throat with a ring of purple spots.Stamens ten.
chemical composition.Grass centaury contains 0.6-1% alkaloids (gentsianin prevails), have the bitter substances of the glycosides (eri-taurine, eritrotsentaurin et al.).Found flavonoids (apiin, luteolin, kosmoziin, apigenin, skuttelyarein, rutin, astragalin, kvertsimeritrin, kaempferol, kvertse-ting, hrizoeriol et al.).The fresh grass contains vitamin C and carotenoids, but they are mostly destroyed during drying.It is also established the presence of tri-perpenoidov primarily oleanolic acid, phytosterols, essential oil.
action and application.Bitter substances have the same mechanism of action as that of the watch.They stimulate the appetite, increase the secretion of digestive glands and, in addition, increase bile secretion.Alkaloid gentsianin has anthelmintic action.