Useful and therapeutic properties of buckthorn olhovidnoy ( brittle )
family rhamnaceae - Rhamnaceae
generic name derives from the Latin verb frangere - breaking as timber plants have brittle.Species definition is translated from Latin means alder, olhovidnaya - the similarity of leaf buckthorn leaves gray alder.
Botanical description.Shrub, sometimes tree height of 2-4 (7) m, with the next branching branches.The rough is not unlike zhostera.Leaves alternate, pointed elliptic, entire, the main veins depart 6-8 pairs of arcuate side.Flowers small, bisexual, five-membered, located at 2-7 in the leaf axils.Calyx five-incised, five free greenish-white petals up to 1 mm.Each petal (with wrapped along the edges) surrounds anther stamens.Pestle with top bilocular one ovary.Fruit - spherical red and almost black when ripe dvusemyannaya drupe, 7-8 mm in diameter.The bones of two, rarely one or three, flattened coracoid with cartilaginous protuberance.
Blossoms in May - June.The fruits ripen in August.
buckthorn fruits are sweet, but inedible, and they are often called wolf ber
Geographical distribution.It grows in forests, among bushes, in a filling and marshy meadows, along rivers and lakes, often forming large thickets.Distributed in the European part of the Soviet Union, except the steppe zone, the Caucasus and the south of Western Siberia.
main areas blanks are in Belarus, Ukraine, Novgorod, Pskov, Kostroma, Ivanovo, Gorky Region and Bashkiria.
collection and drying.Collect bark produced in early spring during sap flow and to blooming flowers.The preform should be aligned with forestry.If the shrubs are to be destroyed, removed the smooth bark of a thickness not exceeding 2 mm from all branches.If the plants are not scheduled for grubbing, the two semicircular incision made at a distance of 25-30 cm from each other and connect them lengthwise and then remove the bark in the form of grooves upwards.In this case use only the bushes at least 3 meters high. Sometimes selectively ssekayut part branches with an ax or a large knife, cut into pieces and then removed the bark.Repeated harvesting of the same plant available in 3-5 years provided that is half the branches.In this thinning remaining branches receive more light and a rapid regrowth of new shoots.The highest yield of bark buckthorn bushes give the age at least 15 years.
Bark covered with bushy or leafy lichen collection can not be.In extreme cases, lichens previously scraped with a knife.
dried bark in the shade under the eaves, in barns, attics, arranging adequate ventilation, as long as it does not become brittle.
medicinal raw materials.Ready raw material - buckthorn bark (Cortex Frangulae) is a tubular or trough pieces of different lengths, thickness of 0.5-2 mm.The outer surface is dark brown, gray-brown, dark gray or gray with whitish transverse lenticels.With a slight scraping the top layer of red reveals inner tube.The inner surface is smooth, yellowish orange or reddish-th brown.The break light yellow, melkoschetinisty.When the inner surface wetting cortex lime water, ammonia or any alkali appear blood-red color.No dry bark or decoction with a solution of the dye-lezoammonievyh alum do not give.
Odour mild, slightly bitter taste.When chewing saliva dyed yellow.
Art.GF 183 X and GOST 2399-56 impose almost identical to the raw material requirements.Permissible moisture content of not more than 15%;Ash not more than 5%;pieces of bark covered with bushy lichens, not more than 1% (GOST admits 2%);pieces of bark from the wood remains less than 1%;bark pieces of 2 mm thickness is not more than 3%;organic and mineral impurities not more than 0.5%.State Standard, in addition, regulates the presence of crushed pieces which pass through a sieve with a hole diameter of 2 mm, not more than 5%.
extractives content extracted with 70% alcohol, should be at least 20%.
chemical composition.Buckthorn bark contains up to 8% antraglikozidov.The fresh bark mainly glyco-zidom is frangulorozid, but when drying and storing it, oxidized, becomes frangulin;There are also Genins (emodin and izoemodin, rhein).In addition, provides free anthranol, Treater-Penov glycosides, resinous substances, traces of tannins and others.
Svezhesnyataya bark reaction with alkali does not, but after the pre-treatment of its hydrogen peroxide reaction becomes positive as antrano-lovye glycosides and freeanthranol oxidized to anthraquinone.Freshly dried bark and is not applicable for the preparation of drugs since it irritates the mucous membrane of the stomach, causing pain, vomiting, nausea, due anthranol content.Therefore, it is stored before use in storage for one year or in an oven maintained at 100 ° for 1 hour.Side effect disappears after this treatment.
action and application.The pharmacological action of buckthorn bark due to the content in it antraglikozidov.Under the influence of the large intestine of enzymes and microflora oni.razlagayutsya form emodin and hrizofanovuyu acid.Recent irritate the large bowel mucosa, which leads to increased motility and emptying it.Laxative effect is manifested after 8-12 hours after ingestion.Preparations of bark is prescribed for intestinal, chronic constipation in the form of liquid and dry extracts.First give 20-40 drops to a reception, the second - 1 tablet containing 0.2 g of extract.The preparation of the buckthorn is available in tablets called RAMS.The bark also prepare a decoction of the '20 per 200 ml of water, which take 1 tablespoon in the morning or in the evening.
Keep in mind that long-term use of drugs addictive buckthorn occurs and the effect is reduced.