Useful and therapeutic properties of Schisandra chinensis

August 12, 2017 17:59 | Drug Plants

family Limonnikova - Schizandraceae

The generic name is derived from the Greek words - schizo - divide and andros - man, as the plant is unisexual flowers - male and female.

Species definition is translated from Latin means "Chinese".

Botanical description.Deciduous woody vine, reaching 8 (12) m high.The stem is covered with dark brown wrinkled bark.On the bark of young shoots smooth, reddish-brown.These shoots, making levovraschatelnye motion, wrap around the stems of other plants, bringing leaves to the light.The leaves are alternate, obovate or pointed-elliptical, up to 10 cm and a width of 5 cm. The edge of the leaf blade with few clear-defined teeth.The leaves are dark-green, bare, below - lighter, with weak pubescence along the veins.Red petioles.

monoecious plant.The flowers are crowded at the base of one-year branches, 3-5 in the leaf axils, with a pronounced flavor.Perianth corolla, consisting of 6-9 leaflets outside white and inside a pink color with a brownish tinge, arranged in two circl

es.Outer tepals are drooping, and internal converging, obtuse, ovate-oblong.Male flowers have 5 stamens, fused in a column, which is significantly shorter than the perianth.The female flowers are located on the top of the stem, on a cylindrical receptacle sit numerous pistils.After fertilization, the peduncle and receptacle are extended to form the fruit - juicy mnogolistovku composed of numerous red berry-like seeds fruitlets located on an elongated receptacle, which in common parlance is called berries.Woody shoots, leaves and bark have a lemon scent, which is shown more clearly when crushed.

Blossoms in May - June.The fruits ripen in September.

Geographical distribution.In the natural state, magnolia grows in coniferous and larch-GOVERNMENTAL and deciduous forests of Primorye and Khabarovsk territories, along the middle reaches of the Amur, on about.Sakhalin, Japan and North China.Mostly grows on easily permeable soils along rivers and streams, avoiding, however, wetlands.Shade tolerance and winter hardiness.Successfully cultivated in various regions of the USSR, including Belarus.

collection and drying.Harvest fruits and seeds.Gathering the fruits of produce as it ripens.Drying consists of two phases: first, the berries podvyalivayut air (under canopy, in the attic) for 2-3 days, and then finally dried in the oven (the oven, the oven), initially keeping the temperature below 40 ° C and raising it to the end of drying to 60°.

medicinal raw materials.Used krupnomorschinistye, rounded, partially deformed red or dark red fruit (Fructus Schizandrae) with a diameter of 5-9 mm.Presence of small lumps of bunched berries.The fruit pulp is 1-2 light brown or yellowish-brown shiny seed.The smell is weak, peculiar, taste bitter, sour, astringent, with a characteristic burning sensation in the mouth.

Art.GF 294 X admits a moisture no more than 14%;Ash not more than 4%;burnt and damaged fruit is not more than 2%;other parts of plants (branches, receptacle residues) not more than 1%;Organic impurities are not more than 1% of mineral - not more than 0.5%.

Dried fruits packed in cloth bags of 50 kg.Store in a dry, shaded, well-ventilated areas.The bags are stacked on shelves or podtovarniki.

seeds recovered from the pulp in the preparation of juice, which is a food product.Bagasse is folded in wooden barrels, add 10% of its weight of water, and stirred well podbrazhivayut then (after 4-5 days), the pulp is washed with water, separated and dried seeds them in air or in a dryer at a temperature not exceeding 50 °.Seeds

okruglopochkovidnoy shape, length 3 to 5 mm, a width of 2-4.5 mm thickness - 1.5-2.5 mm.On the concave side are dark gray scar across the width of the seed.The surface is smooth, shiny (on prolonged storage becomes dull), yellowish-brown color.Peel breaks easily and freely behind the nucleus.

Pounded seeds have a strong specific smell, taste bitter, pungent, spicy.

Art.GF 604 X admits a moisture no more than 12%;Ash not more than 3%;other parts of Schisandra (fruit pulp, twigs) of not more than 3%;damaged seeds no more than 5%;Organic impurities are not more than 1%;mineral - no more than 1%.

Store in a double layer of paper or cloth bags of 25-30 kg, stacked on shelves or podtovarniki in a dry ventilated area.

chemical composition.The fruits contain up to 20% of organic acids (mainly citric, malic and tartaric), sugars and relatively little to 500 mg / 100g Vitamin C (for dried fruit).The fruits found saponins, anthraquinones, flavonoids.Plant is rich in essential oils: it stems more than 2% in the cortex of the stems - more than 3%, and seeds - 2%.The essential oil is used in perfume industry.

seeds are rich in fatty oils (33%), consisting primarily of the glycerides of unsaturated fatty acids - linoleic and oleic.The unsaponifiable fraction oil contains lignans - schisandrine, Schema-zandrol and -skhizandrin that have stimulating, tonic, adaptogenic and immune-stimulating properties.In addition, fatty oil found in vitamin B. Toning agents are not only in seeds but also in fruit pulp and peel, but in smaller quantities.They are also found in the roots, bark and fruit.

action and application.The therapeutic effect is characteristic primarily seeds.It is due to the whole complex of biologically active substances and particularly lignans.

Lemongrass has long been used in Chinese and Japanese medicine as a stimulant and tonic.To restore functionality tired man enough to take in during a day of 0.5-1 powder or seeds 25-30 g of fresh fruit.Valuable properties of fruits have long been known peoples of the Far East.Hunters, going into the forest, taking with him Schisandra berry.Eating a handful of dried berries, they were without food for hours, not knowing weariness, to track down the beast.In China, the fruit is called Schisandra berries five flavors - at Wai-Tzu (fruit pulp is sour, sweet shell, the seeds bitter, burning taste, and medicines made from seeds, eventually becoming salty taste).

tonic properties are also extracts of leaves (a tablespoon of dried leaves pour a glass of boiling water and allowed to stand until cool).

Fruits and seeds of Schisandra enhance the processes of excitation in the brain that stimulate the cardiovascular system and respiration.Schisandra increases physical performance, enhances night vision acuity.For this purpose, it is administered as an infusion of 20-30 drops to receive a tablet or powder to 0.5 g of fruit before meal or after 4 hours after ingestion.Last preparation contains more lignans and therefore more effective than tincture.Both drugs are often prescribed for fatigue, after long debilitating disease in the postoperative period.

Lemongrass and his drugs are contraindicated in increased excitability, insomnia, hypertension and heart disease.