Useful and therapeutic properties of mother and stepmother
The generic name is derived from the Latin words tussis - Cough and agere - to drive, as the plant has long been used for coughs.Species definition is derived from the Latin words far - flour and fero - bear, because the leaves of this plant from the bottom, as it were sprinkled with flour because of the abundance of white hairs.
Russian name - mother-and-stepmother, due to the fact that if you put the body sheet of the bottom side,
he seems to warm (the mother), and top - cold (stepmother).
Botanical description.Perennial herb with a long horizontal rhizome.Early spring from it grow upright flowering stems, elongating to 25 cm during the flowering and then fruiting.They are sessile leaves scaly, pressed to the stem.Stems single end baskets containing reed on the edge and in the center of tubular flowers golden yellow.In appearance, somewhat reminiscent of the inflorescence basket dandelion.During the flowering of true leaves there, they appear after flowering and are basal, long-petiolate;leaf blade
Flowering in late March - April.Blossoms behind ephemeroids - the first flowering plants in the spring, which in everyday life are called snowdrops.
Fruit - achene with a tuft.The fruits ripen in May - June and are dispersed by wind.
Geographical distribution.It grows on a fairly moist soil, preferring loam other types of soil found on drained peatlands., On coastal cliffs, along the drainage channels, on the banks of rivers and streams, along the railway embankments, on slopes of clay and other pits, ditches and ravines, on drainedpeat bogs.
Distributed almost throughout the European part of the USSR, except for the lower Volga region, the Caucasus, Central Asia, except for the deserts and semi-deserts, and in Western Siberia.Plants with especially large leaves (giant), there is little susceptible to fungal diseases, we have seen in the Baksan gorge of the Greater Caucasus.The main areas are blanks in Lithuania, Belarus, Ukraine, and in many areas and the edges of the RSFSR.
collection and drying.Collect flower baskets at the beginning of the flowering plants - in March - April, tearing their hands and removing the remainder of the stem.
Dry them in the shade, laying a thin layer in a row.the best quality raw material is obtained by
drying on racks with mesh, stainless steel shelves.
leaves are harvested after flowering plants, starting with the moment when the rare hairs on the upper side of the leaf will wither away and osyplyutsya leaves on top will be completely naked.Collection of lead during the first half of summer.Later on plants affected by fungus, which is manifested in the form of brown spots beginning at the upper side of the sheet, and then on the bottom.These leaves are not subject to collection.
Rip usually only leaf blades with a short remnant of the petiole, sometimes they are cut with scissors.
When harvesting leaves in June - July, even a complete collection of their not harm plants, as by this time the fruits are sown and in the rhizome already have a stock of nutrients.
collected leaves poured into bags or baskets and deliver fast drying.
dried leaves in the shade, in attics, under eaves or in the dryer at a temperature of 35-40 °, spreading one layer, but a large amount can be assembled to lay a layer no thicker than 2-3 cm, and stir occasionally.Before drying should be discarded impurities and leaves with brown spots.
medicinal raw materials.The finished raw material is of two kinds.
flowers mother and stepmother - Flores Farfarae are flower baskets without stem or with the remainder of its length not more than 1 cm along the edge of the inflorescence are arranged in several rows marginal ligulate pistillate flowers and in the middle -. Few Tube.Those and other yellow.Baskets in diameter of 10-15 mm.Receptacle flat, bare-row wrapper with a total of linear leaves.All flowers with tufted.
Odor peculiar, faint, bitter taste with a feeling of mucosa.
GOST 21568-76 allows: moisture less than 15%;baskets with the remainder of the stem length of 1 cm of not more than 4%;fluff, ie faded baskets, not more than 3%;crushed pieces pass through a sieve with a hole diameter of 2 mm, not more than 2%;Organic impurities are not more than 0.5%;mineral - no more than 1%.
leaf mother and stepmother - Folium Farfarae rounded heart-shaped, notched region and unevenly rare and serrulate.Top leaves bare, white-tomentose below the abundance of tangled long hair, long 8-15 cm, a width of about 10 cm. Petioles about 5 cm long. The leaves should not be pubescence above.their color green on top, bottom whitish-gray.
Odor absent, with a sense of taste slabogorkovaty mucosa.
GOST 13382-67 allows: moisture not more than 13%;Ash not more than 20%;brownish leaves no more than 5%;leaves severely affected by rust-brown spots, no more than 2%;Organic impurities are not more than 2%;mineral - less than 2%.
to the organic impurities are part of other plants.Only the most novice collectors may gather together Mother and stepmother, butterbur leaves (butterbur) hybrid - Petasites hybridus (L.) Gaertn, Mey..et Scherb.butterbur and unreal -. Petasites spurius (. Retz) Reichb, leaf blades which are larger, almost triangular in shape.In burdock - Arctium lappa L. and Arctium tomentosum - Arctium tomentosum Mill, the leaves are also very large, broadly oval or ovate, sometimes with heart-shaped notch at the base.
chemical composition.Flowers mother and stepmother contain triterpenes and faradiol arnidiol, tetraterpenes Tarak-Santini stigmasterol and sitosterol, a hydrocarbon-HepB takozan and tannins.
sheet contains 2.63% to Toussaint bitter glycoside and other Lyagina glycosides to 160 mg% of flavonoids, including rutin and hyperoside, there sitosterol, organic acids, tannins, saponins, carotenoids, and 250 mg% of vitamin C.
action and application.Flowers mother and stepmother have expectorant action.Leaves mother and stepmother often than flowers, used as an expectorant, emollient, disinfectant and anti-inflammatory agent.They are prescribed for bronchitis, coughs, pleurisy, laryngitis, pharyngitis, bronchiectasis as an infusion of raw materials in '15 by 200 ml of water and 1 tablespoon 2-3 hours.Enter in the fees prescribed for hypertension "disease, bronchial asthma, cough, and other.