Useful and therapeutic properties of Juniperus
cypress family - Cupressaceae
It is believed that the generic name is derived from the Celtic jeneprus - prickly juniper leaves and characterized.The generic definition means "common".
Botanical description.Evergreen conifer de
revtse or shrub up to 8 m (in some cases - up to 12 m).The most common plant height does not exceed 3.5-4 m from Crohn's conical trees in bush forms -. Ovoid or conical.Kidney naked, surrounded and pressed shorter leaves.Stems reddish-brown.Bark gray-brownish, crack.Leaves collected in whorls of 3, subulate, linear-lanceolate, 1-1.5 cm long and 0.7-1.5 mm wide, top-neglubo kozhelobchatye, with one wide whitish stomatal band, brilliant-green below, with a bluntkeel, dense, elongated at the end of the barbed tip.The plant is dioecious.Men microsporangia have the form of small oval spikelets yellow, are located in the axils of leaves on old wood.Women's knobs are located on the axillary truncated branches and consist of several tiers mutov often situated (3) cheschuy, but only o
Juniper "blooms" in May, mature shishkoyagody collected only in the second year, in the autumn.
Geographical distribution.Juniper grows in the undergrowth of pine, spruce and mixed forests, mostly on sandy soils.Forms thickets on-site logging.On poor soils are found the so-called juniper heath.Plants develop excellent and abundant fruit on sandy hills Polesie.
Juniper grows in the forest and steppe zones of the European part of Russia, in Western and Eastern Siberia.In the Caucasus, it is not found.
easily tolerate shading, but to develop better lit areas.Well adapted to the different conditions and very unpretentious: not afraid
frost, drought, growing on sandy, limestone, clay dry and wet soils.
occurs in the middle belt of the European part of Russia, in Siberia.Especially abundant in the north and northwest of the European part of the USSR and in the Carpathians.
Juniper is very sensitive to air pollution, causing often absent or very depressed in the forest environs of large cities.
main areas blanks are in Lithuania, Belarus (especially in the western regions), Western Ukraine, Sverdlovsk, Perm, Kirov region and in the Udmurt Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic.
Juniper as a medicinal plant was known in ancient Greece and Rome.In the Middle Ages it was considered almost universal medicine.The famous Italian physician XVI century, Andrew Mattioli Pietro (Mattiolus) emphasized the effectiveness of juniper as a diuretic and a mother means.He also ordered the bath of decoction of juniper in gout.
collection and drying.Autumn harvested mature shishkoyagody.Under the bushes spread a canvas tarp or other tissue, which shake and shishkoyagody by tapping the branches with a stick or a segment of soft rubber hose.Shishkoyagody collected are sorted, separating them from leaves and other plant parts.Drying is carried out only in the air - in attics (opening skylights for ventilation), under a canopy, on the shaded veranda.
medicinal raw materials.Juniper Fruits (Fruc-tus Juniperi) are spherical or oval-globular fruit, often slightly depressed sides, 6-9 mm in diameter, smooth, shiny (less opaque), dark brown or almost black, sometimes with a bluish waxy glaucousbloom.At the top of the fruit has three converging grooves at the bottom can be seen under a magnifying glass trifoliate two whorls of brown flakes.The flesh is greenish-brown, it concluded seed 1-3 oblong-shaped triangular, convex on the outside and flat on the contact, sides.
shishkoyagody taste sweet, spicy, aromatic smell, kind of.
GOST 2802-69 admits: moisture less than 20%;Ash not more than 5%;impurities brown fruits are not more
9,5%;green fruit is not more than 0.5%;needles impurities other parts of plants, berries extraneous not more than 1%;mineral impurities are not more than 0.5%.
essential oil content of the feed should not be below 0.5%.
Raw packed in bags weighing no more than 45 kg.Store at podtovarnikah in a dry, well-ventilated area, away from other raw materials.
In collecting the fruits of Juniperus unacceptable impurity shishkoyagody toxic juniper Cossack.Distinguishing features: from the Cossack juniper leaves are needle-like, and scaly, 1-2 mm long, blunt, mutually opposite, pressed tightly to the branches, have a sharp unpleasant odor, shishkoyagody several times longer than the leaves (from Juniperus they are 2-3 timesshorter needles).
chemical composition.The fruits contain 2% essential oil, which is composed of a-pinene, camphene, cadinene, dipentene, aterpineol, terpinelen, borneol, isoborneol, yuniperkamfora, hydrocarbon yunen (Ci0HI6) and others. The total pharmacological effect determine flavonoids (mainly flavonoid glycosidesand anthocyanins), gum (about 8%), organic acids (including glycolic acid), inositol, potassium salt.Raw sugar is very rich (30-40%, mainly glucose).Found TEKZH6 wax (0.6-0.7%), pectin, tannins, pentosans (about 6%), fatty oil, and others.
action and application.The essential oil has a strong diuretic and disinfectant action.It is believed that they are caused mainly terpineol and yunenom.A similar effect, although weaker, tend and water extracts of the fruit.Another component of the essential oil Apin was effective anthelmintics.For external use (in the form of ointments or grinding) the essential oil produces irritating and distracting effect that was used previously for the treatment of rheumatism and radiculitis.
Infusion fruits of juniper (10-12 chopped dried fruit pour 1 cup boiling water, insisting to cool, take 1 tablespoon 3-4 times a day) is used as a diuretic for edema, choleretic and improving food
jam.Has he also expectorant, mild diaphoretic effect and partly promotes lactation (milk production in lactating women).
The fruits are part of the fees prescribed for amenorrhea, arthritis, asthma, glomerular nephritis and nephritis, gout, kidney stones, rheumatism, cholecystitis and others.
Internal use juniper fruit is contraindicated in inflammatory processes of the kidneys, renal pelvis and bladder as well as an essential oil irritates the renal parenchyma, which increases inflammation, as well as pregnant women, because they increase blood flow to the pelvic organs.