Useful and therapeutic properties of the dandelion ( ordinary )
family Asteraceae (Asteraceae) - Asteraceae
generic name derives from the Greek tarasso- calm - on the use of plants by the ancient Greeks.The specific definition of "pharmaceutical" associated with the drug application root.
Botanical description.Perennial herb with a taproot subramose.Above it moves in a vertical short rhizome, which is branched from old plants and floral then formed several arrows, while it is one in the young.Leaves collected in the rosette.They outline lanceolate and pinnatilobate and then peristorazdelnye, runcinate on
form, directed obliquely downward with sharp blades.Floral arrows round, hollow inside, not branched, height of 5-30 (50) cm, end single baskets with a total wrapper.Leaflets of involucre - from lanceolate to lanceolate-linear, outdoor rejected, domestic - pressed to the inflorescence.All flowers ligulate, yellow.Calyx absent, instead it has a crest.Stamens 5, anthers fused into a tube.Pestle with dvurassechennym stigma, ovary lower, unilocular.
The fruit - achene with pappus, are assembled on the receptacle naked in a white bowl.
All plants contain a milky white sap.
Blossoms in May - July, the fruits ripen in 1 month after the start of flowering and are dispersed by wind.Baskets dandelion disclosed in the morning, and then the place where it grows, take the yellow background.In inclement weather and at night inflorescence close.
Geographical distribution.Dandelion - a plant-cosmopolitan.Due to the fact that the fruits of its far-spread by the wind, it is widespread in our country.It grows almost everywhere except the Far North, deserts and semi-deserts of Central Asia and north-east Siberia.Especially abundant in housing, which often forms large thickets, grows in meadows, glades and fringes, on grassy slopes, along roads, in the furrows.
main areas blanks are in the Baltic States, Belarus, Ukraine, and in some areas of the RSFSR.
Despite vast reserves of raw materials in our country is the question of the culture of this plant, which will allow to mechanize the collection of raw materials of higher quality.
collection and drying.Harvest the roots of dandelion, since the second half of August until late autumn.Plants dug with shovels, shake off the ground, cut the entire aboveground part, leaving the rootstock, remove fine roots, washed with cold water and put in baskets or buckets.
Before drying the roots poured into small heaps and withered them up until the stop of the cuts allocated milky juice.After that, the raw material spread in a thin layer and dried in the sun, under the eaves, in attics or in the dryer at a temperature of 40-50 ° to the fragility of the roots.
medicinal raw materials.Ready raw material - dandelion root (Radix Taraxaci) consists of a rod, often twisted, solid roots up to 15 cm, or pieces of the roots is not shorter than 2 cm thick, 0.3-3 cm Outside roots longitudinally wrinkled light brown or dark brown color.in fracture uneven.In the center of the root is clearly visible yellow or yellowish-brown wood, surrounded by a wide gray-white bark with conspicuous brownish mlechnikov concentric circles (not to be confused with the cork bark).
Odor absent, taste sweet, bitter.
When wetting the root fracture iodine blue color is formed, indicating the absence of starch.
GOST 2397-75 admits: moisture not more than 14%;total ash not more than 8%;crushed roots of less than 2 cm is not more than 5%;lightweight, flabby roots of less than 2%;brownish roots in a break of not more than 10% ;, roots with root collar, petioles, leaves no more than 4%;Organic impurities are not more than 0.5%;mineral - less than 2%.The content of extractive substances extracted with water, should be at least 40%.
Inexperienced pickers often collect instead of dandelion Dandelion autumn - Leontodon autumnalis L., whose flowers are also yellow, reed and leaves similar to dandelion leaves.This plant flowers arrow branched, with a very small cavity inside, and the roots are more subtle and highly branched.
Too early collection of dandelion when the roots have not delayed supply of nutrients, raw material after drying turns flabby, lightweight, can be easily separated from the cork and bark.In this case, it is rejected.
chemical composition.Dandelion root contains up to 10% of bitter substances taraksatsina, triterpene compounds: tarakserol, taraksasterol etc .;Sterols: fj-sitosterol and stigmasterol;flavonoids: kosmoziin, luteolin-7-glucoside;to 24% of inulin, up to 3% of rubber, and other fatty oil.
Action and use.The bitter substances of dandelion enhance the appetite and improve digestion (see. Watch), some stimulate the secretion of gastric juice, increase the content of hydrochloric acid.Flavonoids have a choleretic effect.
root is used in the form of broth at the rate of 10 '20 raw materials on 200 ml of water 1 tablespoon before eating anorexia various etiologies, anatsidnyh gastritis, hepatitis and inflammation of the gallbladder, Botkin's disease.Due to the high content of inulin is prescribed for diabetes.The action is enhanced by a combination of dandelion root and leaves of bilberry, nettle and doors beans.