Useful and therapeutic properties of alder
Birch Family - Betulaceae
The generic name is derived from the Celtic al - when and Ian - Beach as alder often grows along river banks.The specific definition of the first species in Latin means "sticky" because of the properties of the young leaves, and the second - "gray" due to the silver-gray bark and pubescent leaves.
Botanical description.Alder adhesive - deciduous tree up to 20-25 m, rarely shrub with black-brown bark.The leaves are alternate, petiolate, shirokoobratnoyaytsezidnye uneven, as if torn, top, bare.Young leaves are sticky, especially from the bottom, and shiny.The flowers are unisexual, but are on the same instance.Stamen - in long, drooping, thin earrings, collected at 3-5.Pistillate earrings, located on the 3-8 at the ends of the branches on the short leg, short, oval.That and other blossoms are formed in the fall and spring bloom before the leaves education.Wind pollinated.After fertilization, the male catkins fall off, and women grow, forming stems, often called "cones" (bumps -
Alder gray - 5-15 m tall tree or shrub.Shrub form is, as a rule, in the southern part of its range.
The bark is light gray, Crohn's ovoid.Leaves acuminate-ovate to elliptic or dvoyakopilchatym margin and pinnate venation.Young - densely pubescent on both sides, fully developed - smooth on top, bottom gray-green, pubescent.Pistillate inflorescence sessile, except the final.
Blossoms in March - April.During flowering alder in the forest is often still snow.
Geographical distribution.Alder adhesive is forest and forest views, the setting on the river valleys in the steppe zone.Forms alder woods along the river floodplains, on marshy ground and well hydrated.
alder grows along river banks, on the edges, clearings, along roads and low-lying meadows, forming pure stands - seroolhovye forest at latitude 55 ° north and.It occurs in the forest zone of the European part of the USSR, the Caucasus, he goes beyond the Urals - the Sverdlovsk and Chelyabinsk regions partially.
main areas of raw material blanks are in Lithuania, Belarus, Ukraine, Pskov, Novgorod, Vologda, Perm, Sverdlovsk and other regions of the RSFSR.
collection and drying.Collect the late fall or winter with trees without frost and snow melting to gray alder stems and sticky.It is more convenient to gather stems from the gray alder, if it looks like a bush.The branches hang down and pluck stems by hand or cut off the ends of the thin branches, and then placed the cones in a basket or bag and sent for drying.
dried seedheads in the sun, in attics, under eaves or in the dryer at a temperature of 30-40 °.With good ventilation drying occurs rapidly.In fact, the raw material is necessary to finally dried but not dry, especially in the autumn collection.
medicinal raw materials.Ready raw material - stems alder (Fructus Alni) consists of the egg-shaped or oval lumps, single or collected several, dark brown or dark brown.There are separate scales and fruit.On the axis of the stems are numerous fan-shaped flakes with thicker and darker edge.In the axils of the scales are flattened winged nutlets, which poured with grinding cones.Compound fruits without seeds contain less of the active ingredients.
Odour mild, astringent taste.
FS 42-850-74 admits: moisture less than 12%;Ash not more than 3.5%;twigs and stalks separated less than 1%;with long stems of branches more than 2 cm from the lower stems to the attachment points, and crushed pieces pass through a sieve with a hole diameter of 1 mm and not more than 3%;Organic impurities are not more than 0.5%;mineral - less than 1%;tannins not less than 10%.
chemical composition.alder stems contain tannins, including tannins to 2.5%, to 3.7% available free gallic acid, flavonoids and others.
Action and use.Tannins alder possess astringent and disinfectant properties.
decoction of 15-20, the aggregate fruits alder 200 ml of water is used and 1 tablespoon 3-4 times a day for acute and chronic enteritis and colitis, accompanied by diarrhea.This reduces the frequency of acts of defecation, normal stool, abdominal pain disappear.