Useful and therapeutic properties of Primula ( ram )
family Primulaceae - Primulaceae
generic name comes from the Latin prima - the first since the plant blooms in early spring.Species definition is derived from the Latin ver - spring for the same reason.
Botanical description.Perennial herb with a vertical or obliquely growing rhizome.Stem round, erect, juicy and is a flower arrow height of 15-30 cm. Only the lower part of his short internodes bears a rosette of leaves.The leaves are ovate or oblong-ovate with blunt tip and slightly crenate margin, the base narrowed into a winged petiole, shortly pubescent.Before flowering, when there is cool, the edges of the leaves are folded inwards and the young leaves at this time is almost rolled into a tube.Flowers (5-13) bright yellow, drooping to one side at the top of the flower arrows in umbellate inflorescence, similar to the curl.Calyx kolokolchatovzdutaya, pyatinadrezannaya.Corolla tubular, with a small limb of the five blades and a long tube.At the base of each petal limb has an orange spot.At the entran
Fruit - polyspermous, ovoid capsule, surrounded by the remaining cup, opening at the top 10 small teeth.In wet weather teeth are bent inwards and the box is closed.
blooms from mid-April to July.The fruits ripen in June - July.
used as a close view - krupnochashechny primrose - Primula macrocalyx Bunge, which extended cup.
Geographical distribution.Primrose spring grows in deciduous and mixed forests, birch groves, forest glades and on the edge of pine forests, scrublands.
occurs in forest and steppe zones of the European part of the USSR.To the east, in the Volga region, it is replaced primrose krupnochashechnym that beyond the Urals izrezhivaetsya and disappears, but reappears in the Tomsk region, the Altai and Sayan.In the North Caucasus and in Transcaucasia is growing a second look, and in the foothills of the Crimea - both kinds.
collection and drying.Mass harvesting primrose can not be carried out because the plant becomes rare and is included in the Red Book and its culture has not yet mastered.Therefore, the raw materials are harvested in small quantities for local needs.If necessary primrose may be introduced into the culture.Sow seeds for the winter and plantation can be used for many years.
to blank sheet of primrose plants from the wild collector must have a license, without which the collection is prohibited.
Collect the leaves in the early flowering of plants, tearing down their arms.In this half of the leaves on each plant is left, so as not to damage the flowering and fruiting.The leaves are dried quickly in attics, but better in furnaces or kilns at a temperature of 90-100 °.In the latter case they retain more vitamin C (ascorbic acid).
Previously harvested and roots primrose containing saponins, but now they collect and use discontinued, as there are other saponin plants with expectorant action.
medicinal raw materials.Ready raw material - sheet primrose (Folium Primulae) consists of a solid and partially fractured leaf structure described above.The leaves are wrinkled on both sides, on the edge of the wavy, city chatye or finely toothed.The stalk is usually 1.5 times the length of the plate, which is from 3.5 to 10 cm.
has a light honey fragrance.Taste first sweet, then bitter, slightly burning.
GOST 3166-76 admits: moisture not more than 13%;Ash not more than 12%;yellowed and browned leaves no more than 2%;shredded pieces, passing through a sieve with a hole diameter of 1 mm and not more than 3%;flowers no more than 8%;organic and mineral impurities
not more than 0.5%;Ascorbic acid is not less than 2.3%.
Inexperienced pickers with primrose leaves can collect and list betony - Betoni-ca officinalis L. Labiatae It is a plant during its flowering did not like the primrose.Stalk her four-sided, leaves diagonally opposite, bilabiate flowers, light purple.But during flowering primrose letter is not yet in bloom.leaves emerged at that time it has, like primrose wrapped inside edge of the sheet and it is very similar.Differences in the raw organic impurity can be by the following features: the base sheet at the initial letters with heart-shaped groove, edge krupnogorodchaty and petioles nekrylatye.
chemical composition.primrose (dry) sheet contains up to 5.9% of vitamin C. The raw material is also valuable because it can be procured in the early spring, when there are no other sources of vitamin C, and especially when the need for it is great.In addition contains up to 2% of saponins, flavonoids and up to 3% carotene mg and others.
Action and use.primrose sheet applied with a lack of vitamin C.