Useful and therapeutic properties of plantain
plantaginaceae family - Plantaginaceae
The generic name is derived from two Latin words: planta - foot, sole and agere - to drive, to follow.This name was given because the seeds of plantain have mucous cells, and swelling after a rain or dew, become sticky, stick to the soles of shoes and are carried by people, why plantain grows on roadsides, paths, and where there is a Russian name.Species definition is translated from Latin means "big" because the leaves of this species are larger than others.
Botanical description.Perennial herb with a short thin rhizome from which thin adventitious roots depart lobe.Leaves petiolate, broadly ovate or broadly, entire with 3-9 arcuate main veins, collected in the rosette.Floral arrows round, the height of 10-45 cm and ends with a long cylindrical ear.The flowers are small, inconspicuous, during the flowering of them far issued stamens with dark purple anthers.Fruit - egg-shaped capsule with small seeds.
Blossoms in May - June until the autumn.The fruits ripen in
Geographical distribution.It grows along roads and footpaths, in housing, in meadows and pastures found in crops, especially in the gardens.It is a widespread weed.It occurs almost throughout the territory of the USSR, especially in densely populated areas in the south of the forest-steppe and forest areas.For wild plantain medicinal plant harvested in the Baltic States, Belarus, Ukraine,
Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, and in many areas and the edges of the RSFSR.
For juice and other products plantain cultivated in the state farms of medicinal plants, especially in the Poltava region of the Ukrainian SSR.Culture is carried out on the field in 3-5 years, it allows you to mechanize the harvest and get the fresh leaves.
collection and drying.Collect the leaves of plantain with a small remnant of the petiole in the flowering period, ripping off their hands.Dry in attics, outdoors, in the shade of buildings, in sheds or in the dryer at a temperature of 40-50 °.After drying the raw materials are sorted, removing the yellowed and browned leaves, flower arrow and accidentally trapped impurities other plants.
medicinal raw materials.Ready raw material - plantain leaf (Folium Plantaginis) contains a whole and partially broken, twisted leaves the structure described above, green or brownish-green, up to 24 and widths up to 11 cm at the base, they are narrowed to a petiole varying lengths, on the site of the cliff.which often are the remains of threadlike veins.The edge of a sheet or piece neyasnozubchaty.
Odour mild, slightly bitter taste.
FS 42-147-72 admits: moisture not more than 14%;Ash not more than 20%;leaves, have lost their normal color, no more than 5%;flower arrows of not more than 1%;shredded pieces, passing through a sieve with a hole diameter of 1 mm and not more than 5%;organic and mineral impurities not more than 1%.Extractives content extracted from the raw water, should be at least 30%.
sometimes together with a large plantain leaf plantain harvested medium - Plantago media L., who leaves at the base narrowed in short petiole and pubescent on both sides, and ribwort plantain - Plantago laceolata L., whose leaves are lanceolate with fluted stem.Elevated levels of these organic impurities unacceptable.
chemical composition.plantain leaves contain indikanovy aukubin glycoside, and bitter tannins, mucus, caffeic, coumaric, citric acid and oleanolic acid;flavonoids (gomoplantaginin, plantaginin derivatives baicalein and skutellyare-in);a small amount of vitamin C, vitamin K,
so-called T factor, taking part in the process of blood clotting, carotene, choline, adenine, enzymes, saponins, pectin, and others.
action and application.Biologically active substances psyllium promote regeneration of damaged tissues, enhance gastric secretory function have sedative, hypnotic effect and even lower blood pressure, are beneficial in the treatment of acute and chronic colitis and juice Fresh leaves have hemostatic action.Infusion of leaves at the rate of 15-20 g of raw material per 200 ml of water is used and 1 tablespoon 3-4 times a day as an expectorant for bronchitis, whooping cough, pulmonary tuberculosis and other diseases of the respiratory organs, accompanied by the release of dense secrets.The same infusion is indicated for diarrhea, flatulence, diseases of the stomach and intestines, hemorrhoids, edema.The drug in the granules plantaglyutsid prescribed for the treatment gipatsidnyh gastritis, gastric ulcer and duodenal ulcer in 1 / 2- 1 teaspoon in 1/4 cup of warm water for 20 to 30 minutes before eating.Preparations are contraindicated in plantain hyperacidity gastritis and peptic ulcer with high acidity.
plantain leaves are part of the fees prescribed for bronchitis, tracheobronchitis, bronchial asthma, acute and chronic gastritis, acute glo-merulonefrite, gastric ulcer and duodenal ulcer.