Useful and therapeutic properties of chamomile
clozhnotsvetnye family (Asteraceae) - Asteraceae
generic name chamomilla is composed of two Greek words: chamai - low and melon - an apple, as inflorescences are similar to apples and low concentration reminiscent of the smell.Species definition recutita - smooth, hairless given due to lack of hairiness.Suave-olens - sweet - due to the strong smell of the plant.
Botanical description .Chamomile - is an annual herb with a thin taproot.The stem is slender, rounded, erect, branched, up to 40 (60) cm. Leaves alternate, sessile, twice or trizhdyperistorassechennye thin, narrow, threadlike segments.Flowers 18-25 mm collected in baskets, which are located on long stalks.Marginal flowers are white, reed, they contain only pistils, but remain sterile, domestic - golden-yellow, tubular, bisexual.Stamens - five anthers fused into a tube, through which the column pestle dvurassechennym stigma.Ovary lower, odnognezd Nye.Flowers sit on the conical, naked, inside a hollow receptacle.Fruit - achene without pappus.
Bloom, like many other Asteraceae plants occur simultaneously.The first bloom reed flowers, they are directed upward at this time, then take a horizontal position, and edge bloom tubular flowers, but the middle is still at the stage of budding.These flowers open latest, at which time the reed facing down or fall off.As flowering inflorescence is becoming more and more conical.
It blooms from May to August, the fruits ripen in July - August.They showered and quickly germinate.
Chamomile bezyazychkovaya as an annual plant with a thick, branched stems, up to 30 (60) cm. The leaves are the same as in chamomile.No reed flowers, all flowers are tubular, yellowish-green, clustered in ovoid-conical basket, sitting on short stalks and are therefore often surrounded by leaves.The smell is strong, nice.The fruit - achene with two strips of tar and mucous cells in the lower part, causing the adhesive, and sticking to the soles of shoes or feet of animals, often spread over large distances.
Flowers in July - August, fruits ripen in August - September.
Geographical distribution. bezyazychkovaya Chamomile is brought to us from North America.In the 40s of the last century it was bred as a rare plant in the St. Petersburg Botanical Garden, but thanks to the ability of achenes spread by humans and animals, has moved beyond the garden and quickly spread primarily in the European part of Russia.
Later, she appeared in the Far East, which has been brought by sea from North America.
is now widely distributed in the European part of the USSR, the Caucasus, Western Siberia and the Far East.The range is constantly expanding its activities thanks to the active man.
Camomile grows on nezadernovannyh furrows in grain crops and row crops, gardens, parks, vineyards, plains, populated areas, meadows, roadsides, along railway embankments.
occurs almost throughout the European part of Russia, except the Far North, the Caucasus, at least in Siberia: Novosibirsk and Irkutsk regions, parts of Central Asia.Most abundant in the black earth belt.Cultivated in many state farms of medicinal plants, especially in Belarus and Ukraine.The main areas of pieces of wild chamomile are in the Ukraine.
collection and drying.We collect chamomile flower baskets at the beginning of flowering, when the reed flowers are directed upwards or sideways horizontal and tubular opened only at the edge of the inflorescence.Late fees when reed flowers deflected down, raw material after drying has an increased crushing, obtained poor quality.
Rip baskets, combing through the tops of the plants bred fingers, then pluck protruding stalks and florets poured into baskets.The state farms of medicinal plants basket cut special combs, buckets or special romashkouborochnymi machines.
have bezyazychkovoy chamomile baskets are collected in the beginning of flowering, when they do not crumble under compression of Curling and between the toes.Rip or cut at the base of the basket with the remainder peduncle no longer than 1 cm, discarding accidentally fallen leaves.Often collectors dig the plant up by the roots and then to pluck baskets.In this case, on 1 sq.m area should be left 2-3 plants for seed multiplication.
Although medicine used both types of chamomile blossoms, they must be collected separately and in any case do not mix.
Collection chamomile produce in good sunny weather, as the raw material, moistened with dew or rain, change their color when dried.
dried chamomile blossoms in attics, sheds, cement currents or in the dryer at a temperature of 30-40 °, sprinkling a thin layer at the rate of 1 kg of flowers per 1 sq.m square and is often mixed.When the mass harvesting large quantities of raw materials can rake rake.Drying is done as long as the receptacle become leathery, hard.Over-dried raw materials has increased grinding.After drying
feedstock simultaneously sieved through sieves with holes of 1 cm diameter and 2 mm.
medicinal raw materials. Ready raw material - chamomile flowers (Flores Chamomillae) is of two kinds.In chamomile, it consists of a whole or partly crumbled flower baskets 4-8 mm diameter, hemispherical IPT conical shape, without stems or remnants of them no longer than 3 cm Reed flowers are white, tubular -. Yellow.Receptacle conical or ostrokonicheskoe, naked, with melkoyamchatoy surface inside the hollow.Wraps imbricate, multi-row, consists of numerous yellowish-green leaves with blunt tips.
The smell is strong, aromatic, spicy flavor, slightly bitter.
Art.GF 270 X and GOST 2237-75 impose the same requirements to raw materials and allow moisture not more than 14%;Ash not more than 12%;shredded pieces, passing through a sieve with a hole diameter of 1 mm and not more than 30%;leaves, stems, peduncles with long baskets 3 cm to 9%;baskets that have lost their normal color, no more than 5%;Organic impurities are not more than 1%;mineral - not more than 0.5%.essential oil content should be not less than 0.3%.
With high content of crushed parts and organic impurities content of no more than 3%, and mineral - less than 1% of the raw materials is allowed only for external use.
as organic impurities are the most common basket of other Asteraceae plants.The people all plants with white reed and yellow tubular flowers are called daisies and therefore brings together chamomile or her.They all have a basket of non-inside receptacle than primarily differ from chamomile.More often than others meet pupavok inflorescences with bracts on the receptacle and are the same as in the daisies, dissected leaves.In chamomile dog - Anthemis cotu-la L. bracts thin, narrow and located at the top of the receptacle beam, smell unpleasant, while chamomile field - Anthemis arvensis L. bracts wider and are located around the receptacle, there is no smell, the leaves of the involucre gray.Chamomile perforated (odorless) - Matricaria perforata Meral is bare, but a non-receptacle.The flowers are odorless.This plant has no insect repellent smell, since it contains no essential oil, not bracts, receptacle preventing penetration of larvae of insects, and therefore it is often damaged by insects which lay their eggs on inflorescences.Of these, the larvae are formed, penetrating the receptacle, izedayuschie parenchyma him, and then the receptacle can be mistaken for hollow.With the defeat of the inflorescence insects on the surface of the receptacle found small black dots - openings to the inside, but inside they are black from the excrement of pests.
Very rarely can be collected by the ordinary daisy or daisy -. Leucanthemum vulgare Lam, which leaves intact, and baskets are large, with a diameter of 4-6 cm, with a flat, bare receptacle.
have bezyazychkovoy chamomile raw material consists of whole okruglokonicheskih flower baskets with a diameter of 3-6 mm diameter, without stems or remnants of them no longer than 1 cm. The flowers are tubular only Vato yellow-green color.Receptacle naked, oblong-conical, hollow inside.Smell and taste are the same as in chamomile.
Art.GF 270 X and GOST 2237-75 admit: shredded pieces, passing through a sieve with a hole diameter of 1 mm and not more than 20%;leaves, stems, peduncles and baskets with a length of 1 cm of not more than 2%;baskets that have lost their normal color, no more than 8%.essential oil content should be not less than 0.2%.The rest of the amounts are the same as in chamomile.
chemical composition .Flowers chamomile contain up to 0.8% essential oil, the main component of which are sesquiterpenes a- and p-bisabolol;hamazulen, conditioning color of chamomile essential oil, which has a dark blue color;caprylic, isovaleric acid and nonyl;flavonoids (apiin, kvertsimeritrin, luteolin-7-glycoside gluon et al.);coumarin - umbelliferone and herniarin;taraksasterol, nicotinic acid, choline, phytosterols, organic acids, bitterness, mucus, carotene and others.
bezyazychkovoy camomile flowers contain up to 0.5% essential oil, not having a chamazulene, so it is a pale yellow color.Among the flavonoids prevalent kvertsimeritrin also apigenin and lyuteolinglyukozid found.
Action and use .Essential oil of chamomile has a disinfectant effect, reduces the formation of gas in the intestines, relieves pain, reduces inflammation, normalizes impaired function of the gastrointestinal tract, as well as increases sweating.Read more about the application, see here.
Used as an infusion rate of '15 raw materials on 200 ml of water and 1 tablespoon 3-4 times a day.
infusion at home is usually prepared as a tea (for this purpose in some countries, such as East Germany, Bulgaria and Poland, produced raw materials, packed in aligninovye bags for disposable brewing), but it is better to cook it in a thermos, insisting 1 teaspoon lightlycrushed flowers in 1 cup boiling water at periodic agitation as chamazulene characterized by a slow and difficult solubility in water.
Assign as an antispasmodic agent in diseases of the digestive system, spastic chronic colitis, flatulence, to stimulate bile secretion.The infusion of 1 teaspoon and 1 cup of water taken for the night an hour before bedtime as a sleep aid, and 1 / 2-1 teaspoon of the infusion relieves intestinal cramps, promotes discharge of gases in the newborn and the disappearance of abdominal pain.This means, according to our observations, works much more effectively than dill water and other carminative agent.It is also recommended as increased excitability, neuralgic and dental pain, painful menstruation, uterine bleeding, diarrhea and others.
romazulon liquid preparation contains extracts and essential oils of chamomile, eliminating the need to prepare an infusion.1.5 tablespoon diluting the preparation in 1 liter of water to give a medicine for external use, and 1/2 teaspoon solution in the beaker of hot water into use.
Rotokan drug containing liquid extracts of chamomile, calendula and yarrow, prescribed to adults with inflammatory diseases of the oral mucosa and periodontal.
hamazulen effective in the treatment of asthma, rheumatism, allergic gastritis and colitis, eczema, burns, X-rays and other diseases.It is a component of cosmetic creams, including children, having a blue color, shampoos and shaving creams.
Externally the infusion of chamomile flowers is used to rinse the mouth and throat with tonsillitis, laryngitis and diseases of the oral cavity, for washing and lotions for hemorrhoids, with conjunctivitis eyewash, in the form of compresses swelling, abrasions, painful wounds, with weeping, and difficult to healskin rashes, for foot baths for sweating.
bezyazychkovoy infusion of chamomile flowers is used externally only.Chamomile flowers are part of the commission appointed by the neuroses of the heart, stomach ulcers and duodenal ulcers, colitis, constipation, flatulence, chronic hepatitis, cholecystitis, gout, acute laryngitis, rheumatoid arthritis, insomnia.