Useful and therapeutic properties of licorice ( licorice )
legume family - Fabaceae
The generic name is derived from the Greek words glykys - sweet and rhiza - the root of the root of sweet taste.Species definition is translated from Latin means "naked," as the fruit in this licorice, unlike other kinds of naked.The specific definition of the second kind "Ural" is given at the place of growth, and the third - in honor of the Russian botanist SI Korzhinsky.
Botanical description.All kinds of licorice is a perennial herb with a very strong root system, which consists of multi-storey horizontal rhizomes, occurring at different depths, from which adventitious roots depart.From underground shoots grow new stems, making the plant one can grow in an area of several dozen square meters.Vegetative reproduction of licorice seed dominates.Roots in the fracture yellow, very sweet.
Stems are round, erect, 70-150 cm tall. Leaves, imparipinnately two subulate stipules that early fall.Do they licorice with 3-10 pairs of oblong-elliptic or ovate lanceolate leaves and even,
Fruit - oblong, laterally compressed bean, bare or lined with glandular spines.
Blossoms in May - June.The fruits ripen in August - September.
Ural Licorice has wider elliptical and ovate leaves and very dense thick brush with larger flowers.Calyx at the base of the bag-shaped-inflated.Beans sickle curved, twisted and entwined in a tight tangle with spines on the surface.
Flowers in June - July.The fruits ripen in late September.
Licorice Korzhinsky different from the Ural smaller size and shape of leaves and fruit.
Flowering and fruiting, as in Ural licorice.
All three kinds of licorice equal.Not allowed harvesting licorice bristly G. echinata L., which has no long breeding ground shoots and roots do not have a sweet taste.
Geographical distribution.Licorice grows along the flood plains and river valleys, on the banks and beds of dried-up rivers and oxbow lakes at the bottom of ravines, in streams, irrigation ditches, alkaline steppe meadows and steppes, in the sowing and planting are malignant weeds.
Licorice is found in the southern belt of the European part of the USSR, the Caucasus, and especially large forms thickets in the valleys of the major rivers of Central Asia, Kazakhstan and the Kur-Araz Lowland Transcaucasia.
Ural licorice found in Kazakhstan, the southern regions of Western Siberia, the mountain valleys of the Pamirs, Tien Shan, Altai and the steppes of the headwaters of the Yenisei.
Licorice Korzhinsky grows between the Volga, Ural, Tobol, Ishim and Sarysu.
All kinds of licorice can be cultivated.Particularly rapid crop yields Ural licorice, whose breeding ground shoots are located in the upper, humus-rich soil layer that makes it easier to collect.Planting produce segments of rhizomes.Studies of the Central Botanical Garden of the Academy of Sciences of the BSSR proved a real possibility of growing licorice in Belarus.
collection and drying.The blank is made of licorice mobile teams All-Union Association "Soyuz
licorice" and in small amounts by individual collectors for the needs of the local drugstores (under license).Licorice plowed subsoil plows.Excavated plants shake off the ground, separated from the stalks.Choose only healthy roots and rhizomes, which have a yellow color in the fracture.Roots thickness from 7 to 50 mm, and rhizomes - 7-150 mm.Part of the dried roots of the sun, folding them in loose stacks, and another part of tube initially purified and dried.Drying may be performed in a dryer at a temperature up to 50-60 ° until roots will break rather than bend.The dried raw material is compressed with a hydraulic press into bales and adhesive qualities at four locations across the steel packing tape.
Licorice is included in the Red Data Book of the USSR.This is due to the fact that although thickets and reserves and the Ural licorice in our country great, the workpiece it conducted in the amount of 10-11 thousand tons per year, and thickets of productivity can be significantly reduced.Therefore, harvest only 75% of the plants in a given area, the soil after the roots of the collection are aligned and harrowed, and re-blank at this point produce only after 6-8 years.
medicinal raw materials.Ready raw material - rhizomes and roots, which are called licorice root - Radix Glycyrrhizae, seu radix Liquiritiae, is of two kinds.The raw materials for pharmacy and food industry are peeled from the cork whole rhizomes and roots of the cylindrical form, varying lengths, with a thickness of 0.5 cm to 5 cm or more.Outside, they are from a pale yellow to brownish-yellow color with slight remnants of cork.The break light yellow.
crude feed outside is covered with a thin pale or grayish-brown cap.The thickness of 7-50 mm of the roots and rhizomes - 7-150 mm.
In a break as the peeled and unpeeled roots are fibrous.The smell peculiar taste of sugary-sweet, slightly irritating.
crude feed enters often shredded form, which is useful for making dosage forms, and particularly charges, and is used for preparing the extract and preparation of other drugs.
GOST 22839-77 allows: moisture from the raw roots and rhizomes of Glycyrrhiza no more than 12%;flabby,
fracture in dark brown roots and rhizomes and buds, roots of white, as well as organic impurities are not more than 4%, mineral - no more than 2%.
Art.GF 573 X can be: in the treated roots of moisture not more than 14%, ash not more than 6%;roots poorly treated by stoppers, not more than 15%;yellowed and browned on the surface, but light yellow to break the roots of not more than 20%;organic and mineral impurities not more than 0.5%.Extractives extracted with 0.25% ammonia solution, should be at least 25%, glycyrrhizic acid content - at least 6%.
chemical composition.Licorice root contains saponin and 23% glycyrrhizin, which is a mixture of potassium and calcium salts of glycyrrhizic acid.This acid is a tribasic glycosyl house which cleave by acid hydrolysis as genin triterpene - glycyrrhetinic acid, and as two molecules glucone glucuronic acid.Glycyrrhizin has a sugary-sweet taste, it is 40 times sweeter than sugar beet.Furthermore 27 contains flavonoids including likviritin, ramnolikviritin, ramnoizolikviritin, liquidation-ritozid, izokvertsitrin, rutin, saponaretin, likurozid, uralozid, astragalin, glycerol, nikitiflorin, izoglabrozid, neolikviritin etc .;sterols, asparagine, free glycyrrhetinic acid;coumarin - geri-Nahrin and umbelliferone;10-30 mg% of vitamin C and other compounds.
action and application.Glycyrrhizin and glycyrrhetinic acid have a hormone-like effect, regulating water-salt metabolism: delay sodium ions and increase the allocation by the kidneys potassium ions.With prolonged use of licorice products can disrupt electrolyte-water balance and lead to the formation of edema.However, unlike corticosteroids, licorice does not inhibit the function of the adrenal cortex, and, on the contrary, stimulates the production of your own hormones.
Glycyrrhizin has expectorant, anti-inflammatory, antispasmodic, diuretic and laxative effects.
licorice flavonoids characterized diuretic, antispasmodic, anticholinergic, antihistaminic activity and weak anti-ulcer activity.
dry extract of licorice - Extractum Glycyrrhizae siccum, seu Liquiritiae - administered as a 10% solution of 1 teaspoon 3-4 times a day as an expectorant.With the same purpose often use chest elixir, popularly known as "drops of the Danish king."Thoracic Elixir included in the composition of expectorants medicines, especially in pediatric practice, since it has a sweet taste and a pleasant smell.Children gladly take medication with licorice.
powder and licorice root extract is used to prepare pilyulnoy mass.
mixture of flavonoids root is available in tablets - likviriton 0.1 g Possesses antispasmodic, anti-inflammatory and mild antacid properties.Appointed with acute gastric ulcer and duodenal ulcer, chronic and erosive gastritis with hyperacidity of gastric function.Ammonium salts of glycyrrhizin and glycyrrhetinic acid - glycyram indicated for the treatment of bronchial asthma, allergic dermatitis.
According to our observations (VI Popov), works well decoction of a mixture of shredded licorice root and horsetail herb ('50 both raw materials for 3 liters of water) in the treatment of chronic alcoholism.1 cup of broth drink for 10-15 minutes before meals.At the same time easier to bear attraction to alcohol.