Useful and therapeutic properties of pine forest
Pine family - Pinaceae
The generic name is derived from the Celtic word pin - rock, mountain, due to the habitat of the plant.Species definition is translated from Latin means "forest."
Botanical description.An evergreen conifer, reaching a height of 20-40 m. The bark is reddish-brown trunk, cracked, yellowish on the branches.Whorled branches are located in several tiers, according to the number of which can be roughly judge the age of the plant.The leaves are needle-like, called needles,
sit in pairs.The convex side of the needles of dark green, fluted, with prominent bluish-white lines.
Male spikelets numerous, gray-yellow, collected in groups at the base of young shoots.At the tops of them are reddish, solitary or collected for 2-3 female bumps, which are composed of imbricated located seed scales, bearing at the base of two facing down naked ovules and neploduschie scales.Pollination is carried by the wind.After fertilization, seed scales grow, becoming woody, forming an oval-tapered cones, fir
«Blossoms" in June, the seeds ripen in the second, at least the third year.
Geographical distribution.Pine forest forms, is in our country's main forest species.It grows even on poor soil with humus, especially in sandy soils.
distributed in areas of coniferous and mixed forests in the European part of Russia, Siberia and Northern Kazakhstan, in the Caucasus Mountains.
collection and drying.From pine receive various pro-ucts that have medicinal value.
system pharmaceutical raw materials are buds.They are harvested in the spring, in March - April when they are swollen, but did not set off in growth and covering their scales still pressed and glued to the kidney.At too early assembly (February) kidney are small and they are less biologically active substances.Collection is carried out at the spring felling, sanitary cleaning pine plantations.If those working in this area are not produced, harvested buds at the tips of the branches of trees.Often kidney are collected in young forest plantations, considering it convenient.In this case, strictly forbidden to collect terminal buds.The growth of the main stem will stop increasing the height will be due to lateral shoots, why grow pine curves unsuitable for commercial timber barrel.When collecting kidney lateral branches all the nutrients enter the terminal buds, causing accelerated growth of pine - has a straight, high trunk.
Gather buds in groups in the form of crowns, cutting them with a knife or tearing hands.In the latter case, after collecting arms from becoming sticky tar, but they are well washed with a few drops of turpentine or gasoline.They are also used in the collection and separated solitary kidney.
The collected materials are dried in attics or under the eaves, and in good weather the sun.
For medicines collected pine sap - arising by tapping into the growing season of trees liquid resin.Tapping produce 5-10 years before logging.From purified turpentine - turpentine - turpentine and rosin isolated.
tarred stumps uprooted subjected to dry distillation.This produces turpentine, liquid tar and charcoal, and by steam distillation of branches (feet) pine - essential oil.Water extraction, while the resulting mixture was evaporated and used as a pine extract bath.
medicinal raw materials.Ready raw material - pine buds (Gemmae Pini) located on several pieces, of which the average larger, or single.The surface of the kidney is covered with dry, tightly pressed together fringed scales glued together with resin serving.kidney length from 1 to 4 cm. Color outside pinkish-brown, to break the green or greenish-brown.
smell of fragrant, resinous, bitter taste.
FS 42-1272-79 admits: moisture not more than 13%;other parts of pine no more than 10%, including needles not more than 0.5%;shredded pieces, passing through a sieve with a hole diameter of 3 mm and not more than 5%;organic and mineral impurities not more than 0.5%.
pine receive a variety of drugs: turpentine, or turpentine oil, turpentine, rosin, Terpin hydrate, liquid tar, carbol, essential pine oil.
chemical composition.Pine buds contain up to 0.36% essential oil, tannins, bitter substance pinipikrin, carotene, vitamin C, flavonoids methyl derivatives.The composition of essential oils include a- and p-pinene, carene, terpineol, limonene and other terponoidy.
in turpentine present in a predominant amount of a-pinene, which accompany its isomers and Karen Sylvester, there is a small amount of Kadin, terpineol etc.
rosin contains resin acids and tar -. Various phenols, what is the basis of his application.
The ethereal pine oil are pinene, limonene, borneol, bornylacetate, cadinene and other terpenes.
action and application.Pine buds are used as an infusion or decoction as an expectorant, disinfectant and diuretic upper respiratory path means, as well as by inhalation.The aqueous extract prepared from the raw calculation g. 20 per 200 ml water.By the glass is highly useful to add 1-2 teaspoons of honey.Unsweetened infusion use for rheumatism and gout, kidney stones.
kidney cook at home pine "honey."To do this, 1 part freshly kidney wash in a colander with cold water, pour 2 parts cold water and heat over low heat in an enamel saucepan, lid closed.Boiling produce for 15-20 minutes.The broth was adjusted boiling water to the original volume, and after complete cooling protsezhyvayut in another pot, was added 2 parts of sugar, brought to a boil without frequent stirring.The resulting syrup was stored in a glass jar, the lid closed.When storing it candy.A tablespoon of this "honey" with milk or tea - a good remedy for cough, and at the same time replenishes the body's need for vitamin C, which is particularly high in the spring, when there are no other sources of this vitamin, and its reserves are exhausted.