Cumin useful properties
Umbelliferae (celery) - Apiaceae
generic name derives from the Greek kara - head and given the shape of an umbrella.Species definition is derived from the Arabic name of the plant - karwaia.
Botanical description. Biennial herb.In the first year of life forms a rich spindle-prominent taproot and a rosette of leaves.Due to the nutrients deposited in the root of the following year formed erect, branched stem 30-80 cm high. The leaves, petioles with the sheath, at the bottom of the larger, lanceolate in outline, and double- or trizhdyperistorassechennye to lanceolate-linear segments.Flowers are white, gathered in a complex umbrella with equal rays.Involucre absent or 1-2 leaf form.Obvertochek not.The flowers are small, a cup in the form of five teeth barely visible above the lower ovary.Petals five with the top, curved inside of the flower.Stamens alternate with the petals.Fruit - oblong visloplodnik, disintegrating when ripe 2 poluplodika with fragrant smell and unique spicy flavor.
Flowers in June - July, ripens in July - August.
Geographical distribution .It grows in the forest and steppe zones along roads, river valleys, meadows, light forests, forest edges and forest glades, in the mountains.
Occurs in the European part, except the steppe regions, the Caucasus, Western Siberia and in the area of Lake Baikal.
How spicy food plant is grown in the state farms.
for the medical industry caraway harvesting is carried out in Belarus, Ukraine, Latvia, Estonia, and some regions of Russia.
collection and drying. collection cumin is best done early in the morning or in the evening, so as not to crumble ripe fruit.For the same reason, the collection is carried out in a time when half of the fruit already in umbels browned, and others are still green.The plants are cut with sickles or knives and tie in snopiki.On the plantations are harvested grain harvesters.When drying indoors or outdoors comes ripening fruit, after which the top threshed by hand or bread threshers and stems discarded.The resulting purified sorting fruit-fanning mills and home sieved and winnowed in the wind.
Reproduction overgrowth occurs spontaneously, as in the collection of a small scree fruit inevitable.
Some collectors, collecting cumin, pull out the plants by the roots and bind them in bundles.With such a workpiece materials always contains more acceptable mineral impurities, which makes him reject.
medicinal raw materials. Ready raw material - the fruit of cumin (Fractus Carvi) consists of visloplodnikov, mostly broken.Poluplodika elongate, often curved sickle and a length of 3-7 mm, a width of 1 1.5 mm.The outer side of the convex, inner - plane.Each has poluplodika 5 prominent longitudinal ribs with light stripes.The color of the fruit is dark brown.The smell is strong, aromatic, pungent flavor, bitter, spicy.
Art.GF 213 IX admits: moisture less than 12%;Ash not more than 8%;damaged and immature fruits of caraway, stem and leaf pieces no more than 2%;attar impurity less than 1%;organic impurities, including fruits and seeds unscented, not more than 1%;mineral impurities are not more than 0.5%;essential oil of at least 4%.
impurity attar can occur in raw material collected from cultivated plants.
Dill garden - Anethum graveolens L.- oval, flattened on the outside, almost flat poluplodika with broad pale edge.
Kishnets the seed - Coriandrum sativum L.- spherical solid fruit with alternating straight and curved, slightly prominent ribs.
Anise ordinary - Anisum vulgare L.- pear-shaped or ovate whole fruit with slightly prominent ribs.
chemical composition .caraway fruit contains 3-7% essential oil, which includes ketone carvone - odor carrier are also limonene, carvacrol, digidrokarvon, digidrokarveol and other terpene solenoids.Found in fruits and flavonoids - quercetin and kaempferol, a fatty oil with a high content of glycerides petroselinic acid and tannins.
Agrotehnika growing. site selection.The best preceding cumin are winter crops, reaching fertilizer pairs, and row crops.The most favorable for cumin black soil and fertile loam with good structure and even sandy soils with sufficient fertility.
Tillage. Cumin usually goes after the winter crops, and therefore soil processing is done on the system autumn plowing to a depth of 22-25 cm with a preliminary shallow plowing.Immediately after harvest precursors tilled soil plowed.To ensure a more uniform emergence in spring field line the looping, and then cultured.If the soil is severely compacted, looping replaced harrowing and sowing cultivation.In loose soil for uniform seeding the soil before planting apply katkovanie (in arid spring katkovanie recommended after planting for the early emergence).
fertilization. Under plowing make humus - 15-20 t / ha in mixture with mineral fertilizers at the rate of 1 kg / ha of ammonium sulfate, 1.5-2.0 t / ha of superphosphate.If cumin sowed winter crops on fertilized, then by autumn plowing is made only in the amount of mineral fertilizers: 1.5-2.0 t / ha of ammonium sulfate, 2.0-2.5 t / ha of superphosphate and 0,5 kg / hapotassium salt.
Reproduction .Cumin propagated by sowing seeds directly into the ground.Sowing seeds produce first class using the tractor vegetable planters SOD-24, and in their absence - drills with disc coulters.Early sowing period.The seeding rate at 45 cm between rows at 8-10 kg / ha, and the seal depth -. 2-4 cm For reliable sprouting seeds before sowing preconditioned (fermentation).
Care plantations is systematic (three or four times), hoeing, weeding and destroying crusts after rains.In this first loosening carried out pre-emergence, and the last - to a depth of 10-12 cm with fertilizers at the rate of: 1.0-1,5 kg / ha of superphosphate and 0,5 kg / ha of potassium salt.In the second year of culture, i.e.a year of fruiting, early spring spend harrowing across the rows, and after that loosened aisle at a depth of 10-12 cm and remove the weeds in the rows.After 10-15 days, hoeing between the rows is repeated at a depth of 6-8 cm At the same time spend feeding at the rate of:. 1.0-1.5 kg / ha of ammonium sulfate or 3 t / ha poultry manure and 2-3 t / ha ash.
Harvesting .Cumin seeds as well as anise, during ripening quickly crumble, so threshing, cleaning and sorting of cumin is basically similar to the works of cleaning of anise.Vintage cumin seeds is 15-25 kg / ha.
Growing seeds. To obtain seed of good quality must be used to seed the site with high agricultural techniques introducing a sufficient amount of organic and mineral fertilizers.To improve the quality of seeds is recommended artificial doopylenie during flowering, varietal weeding with the removal of plants that differ from the basic type of this population, as well as patients and immature plants.
Useful and therapeutic properties
action and application. essential oil cumin irritating effect on the taste buds, and therefore increases the reflex function of digestion, increases the tone and peristalsis, inhibits the processes of putrefaction and fermentation in the gut, relieves pain in the stomach and intestines.Fruits have antispasmodic properties, relaxing the smooth muscles, increase diuresis, increase the secretion of the mammary glands, contribute to the separation of mucus and phlegm.
Broth from '20 whole, crushed, or better, of fruit per 200 ml of water, designate an adult to 3-4 tablespoons 3-4 times a day with stomach and intestinal cramps, flatulence, atony, dyspepsia, enteritis, gastritis, digestive disordersespecially in children.
Fruits of caraway are widely used in the food industry.They sprinkle the bread and add them to the dough, sausage, cabbage with caraway kvass, used to flavor cheese.When Zasole cucumber and tomato with cumin products are stored for longer than usual.Fruit powder is used as a spicy seasoning in the manufacture of some of the first and second courses.
Uses: Cumin seeds are used in disorders of intestinal function (intestinal colic, gas cluster), enteritis, colitis, flatulence.Cumin is used as part of drug charges.
Dosage Form: equal amounts of valerian root, chamomile flowers, mint leaves, fennel seeds, cumin, parsley mixed, 1 tbsp.l.mixture brew 1 cup of boiling water, take in throughout the day.
Medicinal raw materials are the fruits.They collected immature umbrellas in order to avoid losses during the harvest, dried in the shade, often mixed and Ted, and then threshed and winnowed.Store raw materials in behind-closed jars in a dark room.Shelf life 3 years.
fruits contain along with coloring, resinous substances and protein fatty oils.The essential oil contains about 50% carvone, which imparts a specific odor of the fruit.
Fruits of caraway are irritating to the taste buds, a reflex increase the function of the digestive system;enhance its tone and peristalsis, reduce the processes of putrefaction and fermentation in the gut.
In scientific medicine thyme is used for atony and flaccidity of the intestine, flatulence, as a means of enhancing the separation of bile and others.
In folk medicine, cumin is considered an antiseptic, diaphoretic, diuretic, stimulating the functional activity of the digestive tract means, so it applies to people(decoction of seeds, caraway oil) at atony, pain in the bowel region, decreased secretion of gastric contents, flatulence, anemia, as a choleretic, carminative and laxative;Caraway is used as a tincture for atonic constipation and chronic cholecystitis.A decoction of the fruit drink nursing mothers to increase the amount of milk, the women's bleeding In many cases, cumin is used along with common thyme and dill.
When bloating the child 1 tbsp.spoon fruit is boiled in beaker of boiling water for 5-10 minutes, and sugar sweetened give 1 h. spoon 5-6 times a day.You can put an enema, and this broth (without sugar).
flatulence in adults gives good results from the broth 2 tablespoons.spoonfuls of fruit cumin, 1 h. tablespoons of dill fruits, 2.5 tablespoons of finely chopped leaves of yarrow and
1 spoonful of oats, all steeped in 2 cups of boiled water, 40 minutes, use 2 tablespoons.tablespoons every 2 hours.
Broth: 20 g per 200 ml;1 tbsp.spoon 3 times a day.To whet the appetite recommend an hour before a meal to eat a small amount of fruit (on the tip of a knife).
Cumin - excellent medicinal plant.Cumin seeds use in various diseases of the gastrointestinal tract (dyspepsia, intestinal atony, colic, enteritis).Especially it is indispensable in disorders of the activity of the stomach and intestines in infants.Fruits of caraway come in various collections (teas) herbs: tasty, stomach, laxative, carminative, sedative.Enjoy seeds and lactiferous property.
Cumin - a very popular food and spice plant in our country.It has long been known and loved by the people of his.Even our great-grandmother is widely used all parts of the plant: seeds - baking bread, especially rye, cooking muffins, pancakes, soups and cheese, add cumin potatoes when cooking.It has long been the cumin seeds are used in sauerkraut, salted cucumbers, tomatoes, are added to the red beets.
In general, the form of cumin added to all kinds of fatty meats, sausages, boiled fish, mushroom soup, carrots, some cheeses.Ground cumin is added to dishes that do not require heat treatment: pate, cheese, cottage cheese.Cumin is part of many spice mixtures.
cumin powder with dill.Dried cumin seeds mix evenly with dry dill, crush on a coffee grinder and use it for filling meat and vegetable soups.
Soup cumin dressing of roots.Washed roots cumin crushed in a meat grinder and add to the soup for 5-10 minutes until cooked.
Very tasty salted sticks with caraway seeds.Knead the dough from 250 g of flour, 100 g butter, 1 egg, 1 tablespoon milk and 1 tablespoon of sour cream spoon.Roll out the dough, cut into thin sticks, roll in egg, salt and cumin, then bake in a cool oven.
In some areas young caraway leaves used in the form of salad or cook them soup.Try to cook a very simple, but very tasty and healthy salad of cabbage with caraway: 20-30 g of young shoots and leaves cumin, 150 g of sauerkraut, 15 g of vegetable oil.Washed and chopped thyme sprinkled with the prepared cabbage, season with vegetable oil.
A dressing can submit new potatoes baked with caraway seeds.Medium sized potatoes Young wash brush under running water (without removing the skin), and then dried and cut into halves.the cut surface of the lubricating oil, then sprinkle with caraway seeds and salt.Murphy laid on a baking sheet (cut up) and put in a well-heated oven for 30-40 minutes.
Cumin added to the brew.Kvass caraway.40 g cumin, 1 kg of bread, 25 g of yeast, 500 g of sugar, 10 liters of water.Bread cut into small pieces, dried, add water and leave for 3-4 hours.Strain, add the yeast, sugar, cumin and put in a warm place for fermentation.After 2-3 days, strain and store in a cool place.