Useful and therapeutic properties of bearberry ( bear's ear )
heather family - Ericaceae
The generic name is derived from two Greek words arktos - bear and staphyle - the grapes.The specific definition - from the Latin word uva - the grapes and ursus - bear.The name "Bear brush" or "bearish Grapes" indicates that the bears are readily eat the fruits of the plants.
Botanical description.Evergreen shrub with lifts stem which root at the bottom to form adventitious roots.The lower stems are covered with multi-layered dark brown bark that peels off easily.Shoots have a length of 25-130 cm. The leaves on short stalks, thick, leathery, glabrous, oblong-obovate, bottom shining with reticulate venation.
The flowers are pale pink, urceolate collected in few-flowered short drooping brush.Calyx quinquedentate remains in fruit.Corolla at the top with pyatizubchatym limb.Stamens 10, with extended to the base and downy filaments.Pistil 1, with the top
Pyatignezdnaya ovary.Fruit - red spherical drupe with a powdery pyatisemyannaya inedible flesh.
Under normal conditions, f
Flowering occurs in May - July.The fruits ripen in July - August.
Geographical distribution.It grows in dry pine and hardwood light (especially birch) forests, clearings in young pine plantations on the coastal dunes, stony slopes.
occurs in the forest zone of the European part of Russia, Siberia and the Far East, as well as in the Caucasus and in the Carpathians.
Organizing reserves with areas of bearberry should be borne in mind that it is a light-loving plants, and without sanitary felling of trees, lightening locus of raw material reserves are significantly reduced.
collection and drying.Collect bearberry in April - May, before flowering and at the beginning of his or August - November to the beginning of the fruit ripening and before the snow cover.At untimely collection of leaves turn brown during drying.Leafy part of the plant branches up to 3 cm cut off with scissors, shears or a knife.Repeated raw workpiece in this case can be made after 3 years.When harvesting, all the above-ground shoots neogrubevshih thickets recovery is slow and come back to collect the raw materials to the same place can only be in 5-6 years.
dried shoots collected in attics, under the eaves, laying them loosely or in a dryer at a temperature of 50-80 °.After drying, the leaves are threshed terminated or branch stems and discarded.Remove the browned or blackened and leaves.To clean the crushed pieces of raw material is sieved through a sieve with a hole diameter of 3 mm.
medicinal raw materials.The finished raw - bearberry leaf (Folium Uvae ursi) consists of a small, leathery, thick, brittle leaves 1-2,2 cm long, 0.5-1.2 cm wide Leaves obovate, rarely oblong-oval with a very short stem..Venation net.Colour dark-green or reddish,
below - lighter.The smell is not present, strongly astringent taste, bitter.
Art.GF 285 X admits: moisture less than 12%;Ash not more than 4%;leaves that have lost normal color, no more than 3%;Other parts of bearberry leaves and dead no more than 4%;shredded pieces, passing through a sieve with a hole diameter of 3 mm and not more than 3%;Organic impurities are not more than 0.5%;mineral impurities are not more than 0.5%.
to the organic impurities are part of other plants, and especially the leaves of red bilberry - Vaccinium vitis-idaea L. Cowberry very similar to bearberry and inexperienced collectors can collect it along with bearberry.lingonberry leaves are almost the same size or slightly larger;thick, leathery, elliptical or.obovate, but with a wrapped down the edge.On the underside of leaves clearly visible (without a magnifying glass) numerous dark dots - glands.
chemical composition.bearberry leaf contains 8- 16% glycoside arbutin, methyl arbutin, hydroquinone free, 30-35% of hydrolysable tannins, gallic, ellagic, Quinic, formic acid and ursolic acid, ellagitannins, gallotanin, flavonoids: giperozid, quercetin, and izokvertsetin miritse-ting;triterpene uveol and others.
action and application.Glycoside arbutin has antiseptic and diuretic.In the kidney, it is cleaved into glucose and hydroquinone.The latter refers to the group of phenols and therefore exhibits bactericidal properties.You can not assign a bearberry in acute renal disease, since it is annoying kidney tissue, but as a part of fees, where the concentration of arbutin insignificant and shows the potentiation of biologically active substances, it can be used.Relatively small diuretic effect due to the fact that hydroquinone annoying kidney tissue and lowers blood sugar after food load.
Assign bearberry leaf in the form of broth at 10, at the 200 ml of water 1-3 tablespoons 3-4 times a day with cystitis (bacteriuria).