Useful and therapeutic properties of Viola tricolor ( pansy , Ivan da Marya )
Family Violet - Violaceae
The generic name is the ancient Roman name of the plant.The specific definition in the first case in Latin means "three-color" (color of flowers), and the second - "field" (by habitat).
Botanical description.Viola tricolor - an annual or biennial, and field violet - an annual herbaceous plant with a thin taproot.Stem simple or branched, erect or ascending, 10-40 cm tall.The leaves are pinnate with two stipules.Lower - broadly ovate, petiolate, upper-lanceolate, with short petioles, sessile.Flowers solitary on long stalks emerging from the axils of the leaves, with a double perianth, wrong.Sepals five, corolla consists of five petals uneven.Upper - blue-purple or yellow, the same side, but lighter, lower lobe larger than the others, yellow at the base, with dark bands at the edge with a curved purple bag-shaped spur.Five stamens with very short filaments.Pestle with top unilocular one ovary.
In Viola tricolor flowers are larger, longer calyx corolla with a diameter of 2-3.5 c
fruit of both species - oblong-ovoid capsule, opening by three valves, which are then deflected horizontally.
bloom from April to autumn, the fruits ripen in June.
Geographical distribution.Growing up among bushes, in light pine and small-leaved forests, especially on sandy soils, found on dry meadows and is particularly common in forest clearings and edges, like weeds in the fields and gardens.Viola tricolor is common in forest, steppe, rarely in steppe zones of the European part of the USSR, found in Western Siberia, Sverdlovsk and Chelyabinsk regions.Field Violet has a slightly larger area.It occurs more in the Caucasus is more widespread in Western Siberia.The main areas of raw material blanks are in Belarus, Ukraine.
collection and drying.Assemble the above-ground part during flowering in May - June, cutting off the stems with a knife or a sickle, and placed loosely, without seals in baskets or bags.Dry in a well-ventilated area, attics, laying a layer 5-7 cm thick and occasionally stirring.Drying is considered complete when the stems become brittle.In order to avoid the increased raw material grinding the dried leaves for 2-3 days in a heap, and then packaged.
medicinal raw materials.Ready raw material - grass violet tricolor (Herba Violae tricoloris) and grass field violet (Herba Violae arvensis).The raw material consists of leafy stems, simple or branched, up to 25 cm, with the leaves and flowers of the structure described.Sometimes there are unripe and ripe fruit.
leaves and stems color green or dark green, the fruit - light brown.The petals of the corolla purple, dark blue, blue, yellow and pale or light yellow.
Odour weak, peculiar, taste slightly sweet, with a sense of the mucosa.
GOST 16989-71 allows: moisture not more than 14%;ash no more than 13%;yellowed leaves and stems no more than 7%;shredded pieces, passing through a sieve with holes 2 mm in diameter, not more than 3%;Organic impurities are not more than 3%;mineral - no more than 1%.
Inexperienced pickers sometimes instead of violets can collect grass cow wheat - Melampyrum, which is popularly also called Ivan da Marya.He leaves are opposite, without stipules, flowers in dense spicate inflorescences, corolla sympetalous, two-lipped, four stamens.
chemical composition.Grass tricolor violet contains flavonoids (violantin, vitexin, izoviteksin, orientin, izoorientin, vitsetin, 3-glycoside peonidina, rutin), in the flowers - anthocyanin glycosides (viola-ning, which on hydrolysis split into delphinidin, glucose, rhamnose and hydroxycinnamic acid);3-glucoside and delphinidin 3-glucoside mentioned peonidina;are carotenoids ((3-carotene, violak-Santin, zeaxanthin, and auroksantin flavoksantin), traces of essential oil containing methyl salicylate, saponins, vitamin C, mucus, to 6.2% ursolic acid, tannins.
Actionand application. Saponins have expectorant which enhance, presumably, mucus and flavonoids. under their influence is a strengthening of secretion of bronchial glands, liquefaction of sputum and easier its selection. Grass possesses diuretic action, disinfects urinary tract, improves metabolismskin.
appointed interior in the form of infusion of '10 feedstock per 200 ml of water, 1 tablespoon 3-4 times a day after meals with respiratory tract catarrh, coughs, bronchitis, whooping cough, rheumatism, gout, atherosclerosis, cystitis.when skin rashes, skin ulcers, skin ulcers except destination inside make lotions from broth '20 herb per 200 ml of water. a decoction of herbs in the form of baths prescribed for exudative diathesis in children.