Useful and therapeutic properties of horsetail
family horsetail - Equisetaceae
The generic name is derived from the Latin words equus - horse and seta - bristle, here in the "tail" of the meaning, as the branching stems of plants like horsetail.The generic definition means "field" on the habitat.
Botanical description.Spore perennial herbaceous plant with a thin horizontal rhizome from which thin adventitious roots depart.On the rhizome formed spherical nodules
with a reserve of nutrients.Every year, the rhizomes grow shoots the two species.In early spring, formed fertile succulent, not branched, gray-pink stems up to 20 cm, which contain no chlorophyll and do not participate in assimilation.At the top, they are one strobila, which in common parlance is often referred Sporebearing "spikelet".After sporulation of these shoots wither and die, and instead develop green, branched, sterile shoots a height of 30-50 cm. These stems are ribbed, segmented with whorled branches located.The branches are also segmented, mostly 4-5-sided, simple or occasiona
addition horsetail, which has medical value, often found other species, are not subject to procurement, some of them are poisonous.All other horsetails have the same fertile and vegetative shoots.
Forest Horsetail - Equisetum sylvaticum L. is the second branching branches that are horizontal or folded down.
Meadow Horsetail - Equisetum pratense Ehrh.a horizontal, linear, triangular branch.
Horsetail marsh - E. palustre L. has straight branches, mostly pentahedral aimed, like horsetail, obliquely upward.Ground segments branch black cloves branches with black-brown margin.Toxic!
River Horsetail (marsh) has a stem up to 80 (100) cm thick, with large air cavity inside.The branches simple or nonexistent.
Geographical distribution.It is impossible to identify species with habitat definition of the plant.According to our observations horsetail it is more common in open places, including in the fields, and horsetail meadow in the woods, horsetail marsh at the edge of the marshes, wet meadows, along rivers and on to the waterlogged acidic soil fields, horsetail river grows in the marshes, on the shores of lakes and ponds, streams and rivers, it stems out of the water.Horsetail grows in meadows, spruce, pine light, fine and broad-leaved forests,
scrublands.Most often found as a weed in fields with acid soils.It occurs almost throughout the territory of the Soviet Union, except the deserts and semi-deserts.Especially abundant in the forest zone.The main areas are blanks in Belarus, Ukraine, Stavropol and Krasnodar Territories, Perm, Pskov, Lipetsk and Voronezh regions and the Autonomous Republic of Mordovia.
collection and drying.Gather all the above-ground part in the summer, in June - August, tearing or cutting it with sickles, knives or beveling braids.In the latter case, prior to drying carefully sorted, discard other tramp plants.
dried in the attic, under the eaves or in the dryer, laying loosely, in a thickness of 5-7 cm. In dry weather, the raw material can be dried in the shade of buildings.
medicinal raw materials.Ready raw material - herb horsetail (Herba Equiseti) consists of a rigid, hollow inside and grooved stems with branches described tetrahedral structure.Teeth stem sheaths soldered 2-3, triangular-lanceolate, dark brown;teeth sheaths branches - green, dlinnozaostrennye with -otognutymi tips.
At the base of the branches are small brown vagina that when you remove the branches are not detached from the stalk.
raw color gray-green.The smell is weak, peculiar, taste slightly sour.
GOST 14143-69 allows: moisture not more than 13%;Ash not more than 24%;horsetail other parts not more than 1%;other types of content horsetail not more than 4%;Organic impurities are not more than 1%;mineral impurities are not more than 0.5%.
Other horsetail can have on the top of the stem, or even on top of the branches strobila (if collected spore-bearing shoots).Identify the impurities can be, under a magnifying glass looking at a 10- or 20-fold increase in stem sheath and stem in the upper part (if the raw material cutting, choose thin stalks).
have forest horsetail, like a field, tine leaf sheaths soldered.Ribs are stem sharp teeth, arranged in two rows on both sides of ribs (tangential), while horsetail blunt teeth.
We meadow horsetail teeth leaf sheaths not
welded, ribs are sharp teeth stem, located at the top in a row (radially).Branches triangular.
have marsh horsetail teeth leaf sheaths also nespayannye, teeth on the ribs have the form of cross dashes.The base of the first segments of the branches of the black teeth sheaths branches with black border.
have river horsetail stems are much thicker, with a large air cavity so soft when compressed (falling), smooth ribs, teeth stem sheaths each single leaf.
In appearance more than others in the field horsetail like marsh.Toxicity is determined by its content of alkaloid palyustrina.Taking raw materials and producing its merchandising analysis, this impurity is necessary to pay special attention.
chemical composition.Herb Horsetail contains about 5% saponin ekvizetonina, flavonoids (ekvizetrin, luteolin-7-glucoside, izokvertsitrin, luteolin, Camp Ferola-7-diglikozid, kaempferol-3-glycoside), 25% of silicic acid in a free form, andin the form of soluble salts, other acids (aconitic acid, oxalic acid, malic acid and linoleic), traces of alkaloids bit tannins and resins, bitterness, to 4.7 mg (100 g), carotene, 190 mg (100 g) of vitamin C, sitosterol, rarely found in nature, dimethyl sulfone and others.
Action l application.Silicic acid, and especially its salts, is a diuretic.His enhance flavonoids.When edema in patients with heart diseases diuresis increased more than 2 times.The effect begins on the first day of treatment and lasts for the entire course of treatment, and after the abolition of the drug lasts for 2-3 days.Side effects in patients with healthy kidneys is observed.Horsetail is contraindicated in nephritis and nephroso-nephritis.It has a hemostatic effect, especially when hemorrhoids and uterine bleeding.
Assign a decoction of raw materials in '20 by 200 ml of water, a tablespoon 3 times a day as a diuretic for edema on the grounds of insufficiency of blood circulation, with pleurisy with plenty of fluid as well as in inflammatory processes
bladderurinary tract.Externally a decoction is recommended for baths and compresses for hard-healing wounds and boils, to rinse the mouth and throat with inflammatory phenomena, for washing the nasal cavities with frequent bleeding.