Blueberries useful properties
heather family -Ericaceae
origin of the generic name, like cranberries.Species definition is derived from myrtos - myrtle, as the plant is similar to a small blueberry bush of myrtle.
Botanical description. Semishrub to 50 cm tall (usually 15-40 cm).Branches with 4 sharp edges, bare, bright green.The old stem bark takes a light brownish color.The leaves are alternate, elliptical or egg-shaped length 10 to 30 mm, a width of 6-18 mm at the tip sharpened (but leaves are also encountered with blunt apices) redkovolosistye on both sides.The edge of the leaf blade serrulate-toothed.Single drooping flowers are in the axils of the leaves on short stalks (2.5-3.5 mm).Calyx almost whole, corolla pinkish or greenish-white, kuvshinchatosharoobraznoy form, four, quinquedentate.Stamens 8-10, anthers with two shportsevidnymi appendages.Ovary lower, Pyatignezdnaya.Fruits - black (sometimes with a bluish tinge), spherical, rarely elliptical berries with dark colored juice having coloring properties
Blossoms in May - June.The fruits ripen in July - August.
Geographical distribution. Blueberries are widely distributed in the European part of Russia, Siberia and the Caucasus.It grows in pine forests, bilberry spruce, spruce-broadleaf forests, tundra and forest tundra, in sphagnum bogs.The BSSR blueberry spread quite widely.Topical administration of a blueberry in the culture, the device special plantations for its cultivation.
collection and drying.Harvest berries, leaves and shoots with leaves.Leaves are not officinal raw material and pharmacies are not harvested.Manually or using special tools (combs with flexible tines) harvested ripe berries without stalks.Collection made only after drying, the dew.Fruits are collected manually, much cleaner, does not have a large admixture of leaves and other plant parts blueberries.Overripe, sick and damaged by pests should not pick berries.
The fruits are dried in attics, sheds, providing good ventilation, but it is more expedient to produce drying kilns, furnaces and ovens: the first 3-4 hours kept at a temperature no higher than 40 ° C, then increasing it to 55-60 ° C,and finally dried at which the feedstock.
blueberry leaves collected during flowering.Carefully cut with scissors netsvetuschie leafy shoots, dried them in a dark, well-ventilated area, and then separate the leaves from the stems.individual leaves can be harvested.
When harvesting sprouts leaves from the stems do not separate.Such feedstocks used for preparing for collection of plants.
medicinal raw materials. blueberry - Fructus Myrtilli wrinkled berries are 3-6 mm in diameter, with the remains of the calyx at the top in the form of an annular rim surrounding the swollen disc with the remainder of the column in the center or a slight indentation in his place.Berries outside the matte (or slightly shiny) black with a red tint, inside the red-purple.The fruit pulp are (in five nests) numerous small seeds having a crescent shape.At the top of the berries has a circular rim, which is saved in the center of the rest of the column pestle or a scar in its place.If you compress the dried fruit in a fist, then they should not stray into a ball and paint the skin of the hand.
Odour mild, pleasant, taste of sour-sweet, slightly astringent (with astringency).
GOST 3322-69 admits: moisture not more than 17%;unripe, hard and burnt fruit not more than 1%!impurities other plant parts blueberries (leaves, twigs, etc.) of not more than 0.25%;organic impurities, including other fruit plants, not more than 2% (less than 1.5% of their fruits including blueberries, other fruits and edible plants not more than 0.5%);mineral impurities are not more than 0.5%;total ash content - not more than 3%.
dry berries are stored in bags weighing 25-30 kg on racks or podtovarnikah in a dry shaded well-ventilated, cool place.
To dry blueberries can be accidentally mixed into fruit blueberry, black currant, elderberry, cherry, alder buckthorn, buckthorn laxative (zhostera) and some other plants.Berry Blueberry blueberry larger (diameter 7-8 mm), blue, oval, brown flesh, not color or has a very weak coloring properties, rim on the top quinquedentate, the smell does not have numerous seeds embedded in pulp.In black currant fruit is generally spherical, black, with a specific mild flavor, the rest of the cup at the top of tapered, uneven numerous seeds are in the flesh.The fruits of elderberry have three egg-shaped, cross-sectional quadrangular wrinkled on the seed.The fruits of bird cherry characterized by the presence of only one round bones, taste the fruit tart, astringent, coloring black, shiny.The fruits of buckthorn fragile diameter of 8-10 mm, black, shiny, spherical, plano-convex pits are 2-3 with a beak-shaped cartilaginous processes.In rhineberry (Rhamnus cathartica), dried fruits black, shiny, spherical, wrinkled, 5-8 mm in diameter, brown-green flesh, smell the faint, unpleasant, in the pulp contains three - four (sometimes two) of the triangular bone or egg-shaped.
Fruits blueberries are packed in bags of 35-50 kg net.
chemical composition .Fruits contain sugar (5,3- 7,4% of raw material), organic acids (0,90- 1,28%), pectin (0,14-0,69%), tannins (12% up to a completelydry matter).Among the sugars belong to the leading positions of glucose, fructose and sucrose, organic acids - citric, malic, succinic, oxalic, lactic.In berries carotene (0,75-1,6 mg / 100 g) are found, vitamin C (5 to 6 mg / 100 g), thiamin (0.045 mg / 100 g), riboflavin (0.08 mg).Among the fruit and berry plants blueberries stands a very high content of nicotinic acid (2.1 mg / 100 g).Berries are rich in flavonoids (460-600 mg / 100 g), represented mainly kvertsitrin, izokvertsitrinom, rutin, hyper-rated and astragalin.The fruits found mirtillin colorant, which is a mixture of monomethyl zfirov delphinidin and malvidin.Recent research (VV Mzhavanadze et al.) Have shown that dyes blueberries presented glyco-zidami, galactoside and delphinidin arabinoside, petunidin, cyanidin, and malvidin peonidina.Among the phenolic acids isolated caffeic, quinic and chlorogenic.It was also found the presence of iridoid glycosides and monotropeozida asperulozida.The fruit are rich in iron and manganese compounds.There is also information about finding the berries cyclic hexahydroxyalcohols inositol and anthracene derivatives.
The leaves contain tannins pyroxene-tehinovogo number (up to 20% on dry substance), flavonoids quercetin, izokvertsitrin, kvertsitrin, quercetin-3-arabinoside, a mixture which is called neomirtillinom, triterpene acids (ursolic and oleanovaya) and saponins, phenolic(quinic, chlorogenic) glycoside arbutin, hydroquinone, vitamin C, carotenoids, ceryl alcohol, essential oil.Seeds of the drying fatty oil rich (31%) and protein substances (18%).
action and application. Blueberries have long been used as a medicine.Due to the high content of tannins, astringent berries and protivoponosnoe action.Fresh berries regulate the digestive system: diarrhea occur during their astringent properties, and constipation caused by intestinal, they have a laxative effect, facilitating bowel movement.Berries are useful for catarrh of the stomach (especially with low acidity) and bowel.
recommended to cook hot and cold infusion process for internal use infusions of dried blueberries: 2-3 tablespoons of berries pour a glass of cold boiled water and insist at least 8 hours, take 1 / 3-1 / 2 cup several times a day.Medicinal properties also have juice, jellies, compotes, jams, jam and blueberry juice.
When angina, stomatitis, catarrh of the upper respiratory tract are useful infusions of berries, prepared by hot: 1-2 teaspoons of dried fruits pour 1 cup boiling water, insist no more than 15 minutes, then strain.Is the inside of 1/3 cup 3-4 times a day, or used for rinsing.
In folk medicine blueberries are also used in urolithiasis, gout, rheumatism, anemia, eczema, psoriasis, skin rashes.When kidney stones is recommended for an extended time, the mixture of equal parts of blueberries and strawberries.
Prolonged consumption of blueberries contributes to visual acuity, so fresh and canned fruits is recommended to systematically include in the diet of those categories of workers, a profession which is linked to the voltage of (transport drivers, engravers, watchmakers, draftsmen, teachers, and others.).Thick
broths berries and juice are used in compression and gadgets for treating moist eczema, burns, purulent ulcers etc. Broths prepared as follows:.. 100 g of berries poured 0.5 liters of water, heated to boiling and refluxed untiluntil the volume of the broth is reduced by half.Compresses decoction or blueberry juice freshly changed 3-4 times during the day.
Due to the high content of flavonoids and phenolic acids fresh, dried and canned berries are useful in atherosclerosis, hypertension, and other pathological conditions associated with reduced strength of blood vessel walls.
Leaves and fruits of blueberries contain substances beneficial effect for patients with diabetes who have insulin-like effect, reducing blood sugar levels.Patients should be 3 times a day, take 1 / 2-1 cup of infusion made from 1 tablespoon of crushed dried leaves and 1 cup of boiling water.Insist to cool.Infusions of leaves blueberries are effective mainly in mild forms of the disease.
Belarusian researchers DK Shapiro NI Mantsivoda developed recipes canning of fresh blueberries, freshly prepared filled blueberry juice (no sugar added).Clinic Clinical Nutrition Academy of Medical Sciences of the USSR Institute of Nutrition recommended that the use of these cans as an auxiliary therapeutic agent for diabetes and enterocolitis.
Infusions of leaves taken as in cystitis, urethritis and atony of the urinary bladder, kidney stones, intestinal colic (gastralgia), cholelithiasis, chronic enterocolitis.
Hemorrhoids do an enema infusion of leaves of blueberries, while belyah it is used for douching.
blueberry leaves are part of the fees prescribed for patients with diabetes and uric acid stones and fruits - flatulence.
Our industry produces a collection of "Arfaze-ting" of blueberry shoots with leaves, which is prescribed for the treatment of diabetes, mild to moderate severity.Thus it can be combined with other antidiabetic agents.According to our observations (VI Popov), also has a well-collected, containing equal amounts of leaves of bilberry and nettle, fruit flaps white bean varieties and dandelion root.Infusion prepared in a thermos of 3 tablespoons of the mixture and 600 ml of water, use 1 / 2-1 cup 3 times a day before meals.After normalization of glucose in the urine make a break for two weeks, and then take it for 15 days.
berries processing products also have a therapeutic effect.
According to the content of manganese is superior to all the other berries, fruits and vegetables.The blueberries are also found vitamins C, B1, B2, carotene, tannins, pectin, sugar (5.6%), malic acid, quinic, succinic and lactic acid.
Bilberry is widely used in diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, especially in gastritis with low acidity, intestinal infections, hepatitis, and anemia, kidney stones, gout, rheumatism, skin diseases.Since blueberries improve vision, it is recommended for people whose profession requires good vision.Blueberries reduces the concentration of sugar in the blood and therefore be useful in diabetes.Long-term use of fresh blueberries helps in constipation.
Phytoncides blueberries detrimental effect on the dysentery bacillus, staphylococcus, diphtheria, typhoid fever.
Due to the significant content of tannins blueberries have strong astringent properties and is widely used as binders in acute and chronic diarrhea, especially in children, catarrh of the upper respiratory tract, tonsillitis, acute and chronic enterocolitis, putrid fermentation in the gut (especially in children), diarrhea, in mild forms of diabetes.The fruits are used as a tincture, extract, syrup, and the broth.There are indications of the treatment broth bilberry catarrhal and follicular tonsillitis, burns, canker sores, and others. Externally used as compresses for hemorrhoids.
Leaves blueberry due to their content of Myrtilus-ling, causing reduction of sugar in the urine and the blood began to be recommended for the treatment of diabetes.
In folk medicine, bilberry is a popular means.Berries, especially fresh, regulate intestinal peristalsis.They are used as an astringent and diuretic, with diarrhea, catarrh of the intestines and stomach with low acidity, kidney stones, anemia, bedwetting, gout, rheumatism, bleeding, constipation, inflammation of the mouth and throat and psoriasis.
When nephrolithiasis drink a decoction of berries and do baths of decoction of oat straw and horsetail half (50 g per bucket of boiling water).
Fresh berries in the people often recommend eating at the catarrh of the stomach, chronic constipation, rheumatism and gout, and dried - in the form of cooked ones broth with catarrh guts, good to combine the use of fresh blueberries mixed with strawberries (during the strawberry period- 3 weeks) in patients with chronic intestinal disorders, diseases of the stomach with low acidity and anemia.
Strawberries and blueberries in the mixture and separately recommended for kidney stones.Good results were achieved in the use of large amounts of fresh blueberries in gout, rheumatism, disturbed metabolism.Of the decoction of blueberries make compresses, put an enema when gemorroynyh bleeding.Blueberry fruits are used as an astringent, anti-inflammatory, improves eyesight and Vitamins.
externally to treat eczema, skin rashes, aphthosis-foot sores, burns and even tissue necrosis, make a decoction of the fruit of blueberries or ointment (better if fresh fruits).
decoction of leaves of bilberry (60 g per 1 liter of boiling water) acts on the body like insulin, are very helpful in diabetes (diabetes), in diseases of the kidneys and bladder, stomach cramps, edema, female diseases (uterine bleeding, and others.).Use the decoction of leaves and colds, asthma, sexually transmitted diseases, rheumatism, diseases of the liver as blood-purifying, sometimes gall bladder stones.Give drink to cattle with bloody urine.
infusion or decoction of berries: 1-2 teaspoons of crushed berries in a glass of boiling water.take 2-3 tbsp.spoon 3 times a day;It can be drunk as a tea, with no dosage, preferably with pure bee honey.
mixture of 1 kg of fruit per 1200 g of sugar, or better than 500 grams of pure honey;30-40 g taken 2 times a day.
Infusion for enemas: 60 g of leaves of blueberries on 1 liter of boiling water.
Ointment: Cooked fruit (preferably fresh) pounded, mulled them so that they turned into an ointment, and put a thick layer on the affected area.Change the ointment daily, washed it clean serum.
mixture with strong bleeding: blueberries - 30g, chestnut bark (crushed) - 10 g of gum arabic - 20 g, white nettle - 20 g, water - 1 liter.The mixture cook for 10 minutes in a glass or porcelain dishes.Take 120 ml per day.
Infusion: 2-3 tbsp.chopped leaves insist 2-3 hours in 2 cups of boiling water, filter and drink 1 / 4-1 / 2 cup 3-4 times a day before meals.
composition and method of preparation of tea it:
tea from the leaves of blueberry: 1 h .. leaves in 1 tbsp.boiling water, leave for 20 minutes.
Healing properties: Multivitamins and thirst-quenching drink.
Vitamin tea: the leaves of blueberries and cranberries 1: 1.1 tbsp .. dry mix 1 tbsp.boiling water, leave for 10 minutes.Brew and drink as tea.
healing properties: it is also recommended for inflammation in the bladder and bedwetting because of the weakness of the bladder in old age.
infusion of cinquefoil root and bilberry
Required: 1 tbsp.l.crushed root of Potentilla, 1 tbsp.l.Bilberry fruit, 1 tbsp.l.blueberry leaves, 2 tbsp.l.chamomile flowers, 3 cups of beer.
Method. mixture of herbs pour hot beer, boil for 10 minutes, insist 30 minutes, squeeze.