Types of geraniums
geranium and wild geranium, Pelargonium domesticated and belong to the same family - Geranium (Geraniaceae).The family is consists of 11 genera and about 800 species.They are distributed primarily in the areas of the world with a temperate climate.Geraniums grow usually on bushes, woods, meadows, ravines.
Many species grow in the subalpine meadows in the mountains of Europe and the Caucasus, as well as in some areas of North-East Africa - for example, Pelargonium comes from Cape Province.Geraniaceae prefer bright sun, moderate watering, easy-drained fertile soil.Some species of geranium shade-tolerant and like moist soil - this is Geranium sanguineum and meadow geranium, which are found in most parts of Russia, except the Far North and the Far East.
Most geranium - herbaceous plants, there are also annual and perennial species.Annual species have thin taproot, which is easy to pull out of the ground.At the same time, many forest, meadow and steppe species have a well developed rhiz
Aerial stems are usually erect.Only some types of stems weak, bedridden, can be woven into the surrounding bushes.Among geranium themselves sometimes there are shrubs and rare - shrubs.For example, representatives of the genus sarkokaulon (Sarcocaulon), living in the deserts of the south-western Africa, have thick fleshy stalks with resinous bark - it prevents the strong evaporation of moisture.This ability (to be reserved using the moisture stems and leaves) is characteristic of all succulents.
Dimensions plants are very varied.For example, herbaceous geranium Robert - the smallest, 30 cm high, although the most popular among gardeners.A geranium ploskolepestnaya - the highest, up to 70 cm, with large red-purple flowers drooping.Shrubs also can reach 3-4 meters in height.Such "giant" Geraniaceae found on the island of Socotra (dirahma sokotranskaya - Dirachma socotrana) and in the mountainous areas in the Hawaiian Islands.
geranium leaves and stipules are arranged alternately or oppositely.Most basal leaves have long petioles, leaves and stem - sessile.Leaf blade palchatolopastnaya, palchato- or peristorasse-tained.The color of the leaves varied - from light green to red.Sometimes, with the onset of the dry season after falling off the plate leaf petioles transformed into thorns 3-5 cm long, protecting the plant from being eaten by animals.This is characteristic of the prickly pelargoniuma (Pelargonium spinosum) and sarkokaulonov.
One of the characteristic features of geranium - their leaves and stems pubescent with simple and glandular hairs.They also secrete the essential oil, which gives the characteristic aroma of many members of the family.The plant releases a pair of essential oil to protect themselves from overheating or overcooling.
geranium flowers in bisexual, usually 5-member-nye.The color of flowers - from light pink to dark purple.Upper inflorescences of plants as a result of asymmetrical parts are transformed into a curl, like a geranium, or umbrellas, like Pelargonium.Calyx is most of the free, rarely fused to half the sepals.Stamens usually 10, arranged in two circles so that the outer petals, stamens are against, and internal - against the sepals.Cross-pollination is carried by insects: bees, bumblebees, butterflies and flies.After pollination of the flower grows in a long column of "beak".
Fruit - pyatistvorchataya box.Each seed has a helically twisted thread.It then bends it flexes as a spring, - depending on the dryness or humidity of the air and soil.From the ripe fruit seeds are ejected with great force, and because of its "spring" can be moved until the stumble on any obstacle.Then the seed is screwed into the ground and continued giving his mind.
It should give a separate portrait of the members of the family, which are the most popular as healers.
Geranium meadow, meadow cranesbill (Geranium pratense L.)
perennial plant with erect branched stems in height from 40 to 100 cm. It is found here in the European part of Russia and Siberia.It grows in meadows, forest edges, fields, river valleys, deciduous and coniferous forests, on moist forest clearings, as well as close to human habitations, along roads and fences.
Leaves opposite, palmately divided, pubescent like the stem hairs with zhelёzkami.The top of the stem sticky like smeared with glue.Since the plant protects pollen from eating small insects.The fruit, like other geraniums - a box that resembles a beak.
blooms from June to September.The flowers are large, right, with blue or bluish-purple color of the petals.
plant is valued for its good honey and medicinal properties.As a medicinal raw materials are collected all aboveground plant parts (flowers, stems, leaves), and sometimes a rhizome.
At first glance, it is very similar to its closest relative forest Geranium (Geranium silvaticum L.).But geranium flowers in the forest purple or purple and pedicels erect, rather than drooping like a meadow.Hold on a plant from May to September.The height of the stalk -. 30 to 60 cm are abundant in central Russia, the Urals and Siberia.Grass as it is collected for medicinal purposes.
Geranium marsh (Geraniumpalustre L.)
Geranium marsh (Geraniumpalustre L.) is found in wet meadows, in the lowlands, swamps throughout the forest zone of our country.Its stems twine around tall herbaceous cousins and even crawl on the branches of stunted birches and pines.In the absence of the stem support has to travel along the ground.Stem length -. 30 to 90 cm stems of marsh cranesbill divided into the interstices, that is - in several places intercepted thick swellings - nodes.On a long stalk their is so much that is mentioned in another national title - "stokolenets".Leaves long, look like spreading branches, which, weaving between the shrubs, helping to keep the plant upright.Flowers solitary, large, purple or purplish red;flowering lasts from June to September.In folk medicine, herb geranium marsh is quite widely used.
Geranium sanguineum (Geranium sanguineum L.)
Geranium sanguineum (Geranium sanguineum L.) - a perennial herb.It occurs in the European part of Russia, in the Volga region, the Caucasus.It grows in open forests, scrublands, forest edges, clearings, dry southern slopes.In the mountains, it can occur at altitudes up to 1,700 meters above sea level.Stem erect, in height and 70 cm at the base of a blood-red.Rhizome horizontal, nodular.The leaves are rounded at the base of the stem is located on long stalks, in the stem are sessile.Flowers solitary, red, on long stalks.Blossoms in May-June.As a medicinal plant from this geranium collected flowers, leaves and roots.
Dalmatian Dalmatian forms low (10 to 15 cm) covering of creeping leathery leaves split that with the beginning of July more than a month is decorated with pale pink large (up to 2.5 cm in diameter) flowers.There is a variety with white flowers.In autumn the leaves turn red.For the soil has low, but can not tolerate their waterlogged.It prefers sunny places, but grow in partial shade.Propagated by seeds and division of the bush.
There are many popular recipes and treatments using indoor geraniums.Among the cultivated species of the most common - pelargonium zonal or bordered (Pelargonium zonale), it is easily recognizable by the rounded leaves with a brownish or white border at the edge, and pelargonium pink (Pelargonium roseum), it is called and Pelargonium scented (Pelargonium odoratissimum).The latter is recognized by small pink flowers, very fragrant leaves.Leaves are quite different from the other leaves room geraniums - they are not solid, and glubokorazreznye.
Specially cultivated in Central and Northern Europe for healing and perfume raw materials, essential oil Geranium Macrorrhizum (Geranium macrorrhizum L.).This perennial herb grows in the wild on the Mediterranean coast.In the Balkans, it is found on rocky slopes in mountainous regions and in the Crimea and the Carpathians settled as the listed plant.In Bulgaria, the geranium called "Zdravets" and love as much as their national symbol - rose.