Schisandra

August 12, 2017 17:59 | Drug Plants

Lemongrass - very decorative deciduous vine of the family skhizandrovyh (Schizandraceae);some sources say it belongs to the family Magnoliaceae (Magnoliaceae).In the wild form is found mainly in the south of the Far East - in the Primorsky and Khabarovsk Territories, Sakhalin, the South, the North and parts of Central China, Japan and the Korean Peninsula.In recent years, successfully cultivated in central Russia.

Liana this winding, with scaly woody stems, the height (or length) of which reaches 10-15 m and a diameter of 1-2 cm. Stems in the majority of cases originate from shnurovid-governmental brown-brown rhizomes, radiating at a depth of10-15 cm from the root collar.Rhizomes have adventitious roots and leaves scaly;. Reach a length of 10-20 m Schisandra root system is located close to the soil surface, and the rhizome has many dormant buds - it gives the opportunity to propagate its root shoots, about the same as raspberries.The root system and the plant itself is generally very strong and vi

able.Young vegetative shoots during growth committed le vovraschatelnye movement and entwine trunks and branches of trees and shrubs in a clockwise direction, climbing up to 1-1.5 m in one growing season.

Leaves petiolate, slightly fleshy, dark-green, bare, bottom lighter, with weak pubescence on the protruding veins.The leaves of lemongrass bloom early, so it is resistant to late frosts.

Lemongrass - a plant monoecious.This means that the dioecious - male (stamen) and female (pistil) - flowers are arranged on the same vine.The flowers appear in the axils of the scales of renal growth or fruiting shoots.Perianth corolla, leaves his white, pink inside with a brown tint.The flowers have a very pleasant aroma.Flowering vine in late May - June, and the fruits ripen in late August - September and even in October.Pollinated by small beetles, at least - the bees and flies.Germinating seeds develop only when cross-pollination.The scientists also noted feature of Schisandra to change the sex of flowers.The capacity for this type of change depends on the age of the vines (on young plants is dominated by male flowers, women appear later), the conditions of the growing season and the place of growth.

Fruit - juicy mnogolistovka with lengthening during the fruiting receptacle to 8-10 cm.At one receptacle may be between 4 and 40 juicy bright red or orange leaflets ( "berries") with a diameter of 5-10 mm.A separate, single spherical, at least two or trehsemyannaya leaflet is trade name "fruit".Elongated receptacle with peduncle and the fruit is commonly called a brush.The fruit can be kept on the vine through the autumn before leaf fall.

Schisandra Seeds rounded-reniform, with a small cross and a dense scar shiny skin orange-brown, while the fresh seeds - yellow.In medicine use and fresh and dried fruits and seeds.Dried seeds and fruits of Schisandra can be stored for many years, to compensate for the lack of raw materials in the lean years.

All parts of the plant have a specific spicy taste.At grinding emit the smell of lemon - so easy to distinguish from lemongrass like him vines -r actinides and drevogubtsev.

Lemongrass is typical of Korean cedar forests;most often found on the edges and glades, in the bushes, in the valleys of streams and rivers in the upper reaches of the mountain.It prefers moderate soil moisture and air, an abundance of nutrients in the soil;shrub layer uses them as a support.Main thickets lemongrass are located in mixed coniferous-deciduous forests of the Manchurian type.In the mountains above 500-600 m above sea level does not occur.

Schisandra demanding coverage.Settled usually drained, structural, well-watered soil.Bearer of its vines are found only in open, unshaded areas on the banks of rivers and streams, on forest edges and roadsides, and also in the undergrowth on the old fires, cuttings and arrays, sparse felling;severely affected by the fires.Full restoration of the productivity of commercial bush Schisandra comes only after 10-12 years after the fire.

morphological description of Schisandra chinensis

rhizome, an underground stem

kidney radical part of the main stem of lemongrass formed underground rhizome.A cross section of the anatomical structure of roots like the stem.However, he crustal part of the development is significantly stronger than 1.5 times and is close to the root structure.The biological role of the rhizome is the ability to spread it underground for long distances.This feature is useful for the survival of the species in modern conditions, in the struggle for light, water, etc.

structure of primary and secondary wood stalk lemongrass stalk

stalk lemongrass flexible liana, differs little thick, up to 2 cm. Relief stem from the growing mass is achieved form a ring on it jams.It is formed on the surface of the stem just below the epidermis.The crust is a rich layer of mucus cells.By layer mucus cells are dropping cork rings.Conductive elements consist of wood Schisandra tracheids and vessels.Features of the anatomical structure suggests primitive outline of the structure of the stem of the relict plant.

leaves form lemongrass

Leaves simple, entire, oval, sometimes oblong-point or close to round.The top of the sheet pointed, base linovidnoe turning into the petiole.

At the edge of the leaves with fragile teeth.Coloring sheet bright green, without pubescence, stalk crimson.In the veins of the leaf epidermis has mucilaginized cells, which accumulate essential oil.

Kidney

in the leaf axils formed buds simple or complex, consisting of one large central one and two lateral ones.Within the kidney is central cone growth.At its inception in the axils of leaves formed the rudimentary beginnings of flowers.In the future, for the next year in the spring on young shoots in the axils of the leaves are formed 2-3 flower with white petals.The flowers exude a subtle lemon flavor.

Flower

have lemongrass flower more primitive in structure than the other plants.It is believed that in staminate male flowers stamens are visible at the base of floral primordia

Laying new buds in the leaf axils growing shoot lemongrass.To the right is shown the state of growth cones in the kidneys.growth point undifferentiated

complicated kidney lemongrass late autumn: 1 - general view of the kidney;2 - the prepared flower rudiment of male flower;3 - part of the prepared kidney, well

Chinese magnolia flowers.Above - male stamen;bottom female, pistillate

fused their filaments and form a column.In the women's, pistillate flowers 3-5 mm long receptacle of cylindrical form.It is 10-30 carpels of which are formed and fruitlets freely located on the receptacle.After pollination, it begins to grow, it is extended in the axis of the fetus.Flowers are always dioecious.

Schisandra.Numerous carpels in the prepared female flower (magnified under a microscope)

Fruit

Schisandra Fruit - juicy mnogolistovka, mnogoyagoda.From a single flower grows looks like a "brush" the fruit.On highly elongated receptacle, the axis of the fetus, located fruitlets.The axis of the fetus after flowering is extended to 5 or more times.It formed berries, iefruit with freely seated individual fruitlets.The fruit Schisandra - lush mnogolistovka team, mnogoyagoda.

fruitlets bright red round naked, with 1-2 seeds.fruit leathery shell fragile, easy to separate the juice, a bright red color.The taste - sour.The whole fruit has five tastes: sour, sweet, bitter, pungent, salty, with a strong lemon scent.Weight of 1000 seeds reaches an average of 23.4 g of wild plants.Seeds are large, yellow kidney-shaped.3 Determine the fraction of 1000 seeds: small 22.5 g medium-sized and large 39.0 g - 42.3 g

Flowers and fruits of Chinese magnolia vine

embryo in the seed is very small underdeveloped, common pustosemyannost, t.e.seeds without embryos.It sometimes reaches 50% of the harvest of fruits from wild vines in the Far East.

Seed of Schisandra chinensis (increased)

Schisandra seed in the section.Separately shown embryo with two cotyledons and undifferentiated growth cone (increased)

seedlings Schisandra.

Visible wide cotyledonary leaves and the beginning of the growth of the first true leaf.

With a weak differentiation of germ cells and associated delayed seedling emergence.Virtually identical in appearance seeds, but may be from underdeveloped embryo inside.

seedlings from the seeds of wild and cultivated plants did not differ.leaves form oval or I ovoid.Stained stem prevailed raspberry, stem - from reddish-pink to crimson.

Gender plants

Lemongrass in natural habitats and in the culture can be homed or dioecious.In Khabarovsk experiment was conducted.Wild plants lemongrass transplanted to cultural plantation.Have entered into a time of flowering and fruiting vines have 4 types of sexualization: 14% have only female flowers, 36% of male flowers bloom only 3% are monoecious.This means that a plant carried both male and female flowers.46% of the plants were unsustainable over the years sex, ie,in one year, with male flowers, the other with women.It is concluded that the lemongrass is a typical polymorphic species on the floor.

It has been shown that the cross-pollination between the vines increased fruit weight and number of fruitlets in it.

According to our observations, in the suburbs of the seeds usually develop only monoecious plants.They have to vines have both male and female flowers.

When introduced into the culture you need to know that the lemongrass always dioecious flowers.There are four forms of sexual vines: dioecious (male or female), monoecious (male and female flowers on the same vine) and with intermittent data floor.

Schisandra seedling phase 5th true leaf

chemical composition

In Chinese, the name of this plant "in-wei-bond" means "fruit of five tastes."Raskusyvaya its berry, you first feel the acid, then resinous aroma and bitterness, then sweet, then salty, and even insipid.

All of the vines, including the seeds, bark, roots, leaves and fruit pulp, contain essential oil.It attaches to the fruit and delicate aroma reminiscent of lemon, which we feel when rubbed.

leaves contain minerals: potassium, calcium, magnesium, iron;and macronutrients: manganese, copper, zinc, cobalt, aluminum, iodine pi others.Fruits contain the same micro- and macrocells, and that leaves only in large quantities.

Value fruit of Schisandra chinensis comprise vitamins C and E, organic acids (tartaric, malic, citric, and succinic acid), mineral salts (potassium, sodium, calcium, magnesium, iron, phosphorus, copper, manganese, nickel, titanium, molybdenum, silverand zinc).In addition, in fruits contained sugars, tannins and coloring compounds, fatty oils (containing glycerides Lino-left, linolenic, oleic and other acids).

But the most attractive in lemongrass - a biologically active substance and schisandrine skhizandrol included in the composition of its essential oil.Lignans are antioxidants and controls the work of cytochrome P-450 - improve liver function.But their main effect of toning.

These substances have a stimulating effect on the cardiovascular and central nervous system.It is calculated that the daily dose schisandrine contained 25-50 g of crude pulp Schisandra fruit.

Pharmacological properties and use in medicine

As a medicinal herb lemongrass Chinese mentioned in the first Chinese pharmacopoeia for 250 years BC.e.Far Eastern residents Lemongrass has long been prized as a tonic and medicinal plant, but also as a reliable aphrodisiac (today we would say "stimulating") means.The famous traveler and explorer of the Far Eastern Arsenyev told that the conductors in the forest necessarily drink tea from the leaves of lemongrass.Hunters of Primorye and the Amur region knew and used the tonic properties of lemongrass, dried berries stocking up for the future.The fruits of Schisandra vosstavavlivali strength after a long pursuit of the beast in the forest.A handful of dried berries gave the opportunity to the traveler a long time to go without food and rest.In addition, it was believed that lemongrass intensifies the night vision.This property of Schisandra fruit mentioned in ancient Chinese books, and during the Great Patriotic War, these recommendations eastern healers made use of our military doctors.Since 1942, the plant took drugs before combat pilots night departures - There was a significant increase in light sensitivity, eye quickly adapt to night vision.

Now chinensis in folk and scientific medicine rightfully occupies first place among the natural stimulants, sharing it with the famous ginseng and golden root (Rhodiola rosea).It is part of a special group of pharmacological agents - they are called adaptogens.Schisandra - a classic adaptogen, enhances efficiency, the body's resistance to adverse environmental factors, a more rapid recovery of strength with physical and mental fatigue, has an antidepressant effect.

person engaged in physical labor, adaptogens help to cope with physical overexertion, climber - to adapt to the low atmospheric pressure and lack of oxygen, the caster - high temperature and overheating of the body, weaver - to noise in the shop, polar explorer - to the extreme cold, etc.. n. There may even help housewife, although, at first glance, her work, and is not associated with a particular voltage.In fact, far from it - and physical effort any hostess puts a lot of stress and its psychological aims - the monotony of responsibilities, and often undervalued its huge labor loved ones.Natural stimulants to help the patient recover faster after surgery, serious illness or intoxication (poisoning).In short, these plants are "watching" for the preservation of internal balance in the body, and it is very important not only to preserve the physical health and emotional well-being.The use of medications races-teny-adaptogens optimizes brain function, improves intellectual productivity, speed of reaction, making more efficient the processes of learning and memory.Also, adaptogens provide a more economical use of energy by muscles, improves protein synthesis, which is directly related to the biochemical mechanism of memory.

Lemongrass, like other adaptogens, stimulates, but does not drain, and strengthens the central nervous system.It stimulates the cardiovascular and respiratory systems of the human, strengthens and activates the immune system, increases mental and physical capacity, efficiency, improves the appetite, relieves fatigue, improves vision.

Under the influence of the central nervous system drugs lemongrass increase reflex excitability (thus reinforce the positive reflexes), improve neuromuscular conduction, increases motor activity.

Schisandra is also appointed as a stimulant in a number of heart disease functional nature and easing breathing.

Effect of Schisandra on the cardiovascular system include:

  • increases blood pressure (and in combination with certain medicinal plants - it normalizes);
  • reduces the heart rate, increasing their amplitude.

In addition, the reception of funds from the lemon grass can achieve more frequent rhythm and increase the amplitude of respiratory movements (this property is used in the treatment of diseases of the lungs).

Medical studies confirmed the ability of Schisandra to improve visual acuity, reduce fatigue of the visual analyzer under a heavy load, but also greatly improve night vision.

Attention!