Citrus (Citrus).

August 12, 2017 17:59 | Drug Plants

Citrus crops - group plants of the genus Citrus of the family Rutaceae (Rutaceae).Cultivating these plants, are long for the fruits, which are also called citrus.Citrus culture perfectly intersect with each other, so there are plenty of interesting hybrid forms.The global fruit growing these trees grow about 30 kinds:. Orange, grapefruit, tangerine, lemon, klemantin, kumquat, bergamot, citron, lime, etc. These crops occupy large areas on different continents and in different countries: USA, China (south and centralareas), Japan, India, Pakistan, Australia, the Mediterranean countries.

citrus associated legends and myths of various peoples.Including those in whose climate they grow could not.

In ancient Greek myth, in the garden of the Hesperides golden apples grew.In this outlandish garden he was sent Hercules to make his eleventh feat - take them out of there.After long adventures he finally falls into a mysterious garden.Hesperides - in Greek mythology, the daughter of the Night, the nymph, the gua

rdian of the golden apples.They lived on the western edge of the earth round the shores of the river and the ocean guarded apples of eternal youth, that the spouse of the supreme god Zeus - Hera - received as a wedding gift from Gaia on her wedding day with Zeus.Apollonius of Rhodes in his book "Argonautica" tells of the arrival of Jason in the garden of the Hesperides.Argonauts saw there terrified nymphs - here just visited Heracles, who killed the dragon guards the palm of apples.Seeing the new arrivals, the Hesperides in horror crumbled to dust, but still heeded the request of the Argonauts and turned into beautiful trees, and then appeared in its usual form.

According to another legend, the Egyptian king Bushi-Reid planned to kidnap the beautiful Hesperides and ordered the pirates to carry out this plan.Robbers attacked them in the garden of the Hesperides;Girls rescued Hercules, killing the kidnappers.In gratitude to the hero gave the Hesperides golden fruit.

Many Russian fairy tales are also referred to "the golden apples."Most likely, they were the prototype oranges, tangerines, lemons and other citrus fruits.

Even in the Scandinavian legends speak of the "golden apples of immortality": who happen to taste them, will be spared in life from the worst - of disease and old age.

Some German fairy tales also tell about the "tree of life" with the miraculous healing fruit.

In those places where grow orange trees, they thought of old plants that contribute to fertility.Fragrant flowers and golden fruits used for love spells, as well as in various forms of divination, designed to facilitate the birth of children.Rumors about their magical properties have taken root and flourished in European beliefs.Orange flower, orange blossom, or - the most popular flower in the wedding attire of the bride and wedding decoration of the premises.Gradually, he replaced the more traditional myrtle and rosemary.In addition, orange flower that symbolizes chastity and virginity, the presence of these flowers in a wreath of the bride requires that the marriage was not childless.

Orange leaf in the European astrological handbooks symbolizes generosity.

In ancient China practiced magic method "heating" of the house in order to establish power over him.It was as follows: nine skins of lemons or oranges soaked in the pot with water.The resulting citrus water sprayed all over the floor and carpets from the sprinkler irrigated.In this way, to cleanse the house of negative energy and protect him from evil spirits.

Citrus in gardens and parks

Many of the wild ancestors of the present citrus crops, we will not see will never - in nature, they are no longer there.Centuries

hybridization led to their complete exclusion of garden forms.The long and complicated way passed primitive hybrids, while gardeners southern China and India are not raised these legendary fruit that came in the Mediterranean area almost in its present form.However, the Europeans have made and is applied even today a lot of effort to improve the quality of valuable citrus.

first literary mention of a citrus fruit - citron - were found in the ancient Greek historian Theophrastus.Around the year 300 BC.e.He wrote that the sweet fruit of citron absolutely not to eat, but only used to control moths: fragrant pieces placed in the folds of clothing.

A few decades after the citron, thanks to the Arab invaders, hit the Mediterranean region and found his second home sour orange.Until that time, the South Orange culture has been known in the Minor and Central Asia.Arabs are the first to describe the healing properties of this citrus.The famous Arab physician Avicenna in their recipes recommended the juice of sour oranges.Lemon same ( "Do-mung") mentioned in ancient Chinese annals, although his homeland researchers believe India.Only at the beginning of the XV century in Europe there was one of the best representatives of citrus - sweet orange.And in his homeland, in China, it was known at the beginning of our era.

Romans used water from orange blossom to treat hangovers and indigestion.

However, there is evidence that in ancient Rome were known and appreciated fruits orange.Hanging on the trees orange fruit attached bizarre shapes - cubes, vases, animals.All this was done with the help of clay and plaster molds, which were placed in the growing fetus.

Much later the French gardeners Renaissance remembered this tradition somewhat altered her candied oranges on the tree, so that high-ranking nobles were able to eat ready-made candied fruits directly from the branch.

Vasco da Gama on his return to Europe from distant overseas travels admiringly talked about the amazing fruit that it was treated in the eastern ports of Africa.

Colorful appearance and wonderful taste qualities of the new citrus - orange - were the cause of its rapid spread in Europe.For this tender, "Chinese apple", unable to endure cold, began to build special facilities.Shelter These are called "Greenhouse" - from the French name of orange - "orange".

In Russian culture of citrus has been known for over 250 years.In the second half of the XVII century from Holland to Moscow it was first brought to the party of lemon and orange trees.At the end of the XVIII century in the Russian manors landowners quickly spread the fashion for citrus cultivation as an ornamental plant.Nobles

were delighted from the fashionable wonders.So it was no surprise when in 1714 Mensch-ing built near St. Petersburg palace with large greenhouses with him.In the greenhouses of the Overseas ripened fruits - oranges, and the manor was given the name Oranienbaum (German - "orange tree").A little later, Catherine II ordered to call this palace along with Sloboda city "Oranienbaum" and dedicated his coat of arms: orange orange tree on a silver background.

course, citrus fruits while pricey and they only grew in greenhouses dignitaries.But exotic fruits were so attractive that gradually began to spread in the homes of ordinary people.

is said that at the beginning of the XIX century one craftsman imported from Turkey in the village of Paul, not far from the present Nizhny Novgorod, two lemon plants.Since then, the cultivation of citrus fruits has been for the residents of Pavlov's tradition.Up to 60-ies of XX century in each house of the village had to 5 lemon and orange trees.From there I went to a well-known varieties of lemons room - "Pavlovsky".With proper care and caring one tree of this variety gives fruits for the year 10-16.

Still in open ground citrus still grow within a defined range.The northern part of it reaches the Himalayas and northern China, and in the south it ends near Australia and New Caledonia.

Industrial culture in the south of citrus

the former Soviet Union began to develop only in the 20-30s of the last century.However, they are known in those lands long;the first mention of citrus fruits is already in the "Geography of Georgia" written Vakhushti prince.In our country, directly in the ground began to grow citrus in the narrow strip of the South Caucasus, near the border with Turkey.Great work on the domestication and spread of citrus had a famous Russian botanist AN Krasnov.After many expeditions in the tropical and subtropical countries he collected and concentrated the richest collection of citrus plants in the Batumi Botanical Garden - "tsitrary".

course, have their own kind of citrus botanical features.Almost all citrus - evergreen plants (because they - the children of the subtropics).But some species still shed the winter its green attire.Some citrus fruits are armed with thorns, for example familiar to all of us a lemon.

height of citrus trees is not very big.They only rarely reach large sizes.Tangerines - even dwarf trees.Even 30-year-old specimens do not grow higher yields 3.5-4.5 m But at the same time they are quite plentiful -. To 5-7 thousand fruits.

very interesting property of citrus - the ability to grow a few seedlings.One seed can germinate 1-2, sometimes 10-12 sprouts.This phenomenon is called Botany mnogozarodyshnostyu or polyembryony.If you do not sit

sprouts, it will grow one larger plant, while others perish.

some citrus fruits are sometimes not fall by 1.5-2.5 years.As a rule, no lemons or oranges do not fall in the first year of life.If they are not cut off, they sagged yellow until the winter, and spring will begin to turn green again.In summer, their skins very thickened.In autumn they turn yellow again, as it were, "ripen" a second time.But this biennial fruits, despite their size, are less useful palatability - i.e. contain less vitamins, acids and other active ingredients.Therefore, experts advise not to "chase" for large thick-skinned fruits - it may be a two-year results.It is better to look for a medium-sized fruit with a thin skin.